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ISSN: 1570-0178

Volume 5, Issue 2 (16 May 2003)

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Teachings of the Jamaa movement: Texts and commentaries

transcribed , translated, and commented by

Johannes Fabian

University of Amsterdam


Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology
University of Amsterdam
Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185
1012 DK Amsterdam
The Netherlands




Text 1: Of man (1)

Context and setting

Swahili text and English translation



Text 2: Of man (2)

Text 3: Of angels



Text 1: Of man (1)

Context and setting

July 6, 1966. In a settlement at Lubumbashi, just behind the famous overpass that still showed the scars of battles between U.N. troops and Katangese secessionists, people had gathered for evening mass in the sleek, modern church the railway company built for its workers. Afterwards the priest had given the Church's blessing to a few marriages, and poured the baptismal water over woolly-headed babies, most of whom were annoyed at the double discomfort of getting wet and being taken away from their mothers' breasts. Then some of us squeezed into a car and headed toward the quartier industriel to celebrate one of the baptisms. The air was crisp and clean, free still of the unnerving dusty gusts that would come at the height of the dry season. While I steered along the broad avenue whose changing names recorded the fate of bygone regimes, of deposed and hanged politicians, Baba Kabondo began to talk about umuntu. Cheerful, oblivious of the struggles for independence, he recited the myth of thought-man, God's intimate companion who was not touched by distinctions of color, sex, or social status.
I remember feeling somewhat uneasy about these great words and visions pronounced from the back seat of a car. The situation wasn't right. Was he trying to impress me? Or did he want to get his piece in before the big leader would take over? I still had much to learn about the ever-open door between mawazo and everyday life, about the ease and gusto with which Jamaa people would move from one to the other.
When we arrived at our destination, it was dark; a house in a large courtyard surrounded by warehouses, repairshops, and small factories. Inside we were greeted by our host, a tall, imposing man dressed immaculately in a grey business suit. Other guests were awaiting us, the men in their Sunday best, the women in that graceful, colorful fashion that seems to be pan-African. This was decidedly an urban gathering, much different from what I had known among the workers at Musonoi. These people were owners of small businesses, a police detective (who asked me about the color bar in the United States), one or two workers of the railway company, and the chef-boy of some important former colonial official. He was responsible for the dinner, to which we sat down and were served in European fashion. A few rounds of Simba beer were followed by an excellent biftec frites (steak and french fries), very Belgian down to the salad spread heavily with homemade mayonnaise. At the beginning the conversation was in French, small talk and polite inquiries about my work. Then, as the spirit rose, someone intoned a Jamaa hymn, Most joined in, clapping their hands. My neighbor at the table remembered that this was the song they had composed and sung for Baba Placide's farewell. It was a praise to him who had received mawazo from God. The mood became exuberant, and at times my still shaky Swahili made me lose track of the conversation around me. Noticing this, Fr. Somers, the parish priest, and Baba Nkondo helped out with translations and comments. A prayer signalled the end of the meal.
We all moved to a group of chairs arranged around a low table in the adjoining living room. Microphone and tape recorder were ready, and for a second everyone's attention seemed to be caught by this intrusive piece of technology. Someone made a remark I did not catch, the group broke out in laughter, and then Baba Nkondo pronounced the Jamaa greeting. We responded, and in his resonant, calm voice, he asked us: Fathers and mothers, what are we called?

Swahili text and English translation

1. Yambo yetu bababa na bamama/ yambo yetu baba/ wababa na wamama sisi tunaitwa namna gani? tuseme kwanza: hapa twiko tunaitwa namna gani? nyama? sisi twiko wantu/ vile twiko wantu: ni vile tunapashwa kusikia umuntu we- wetu/
1. Greeting.1 Bababa and bamama, what are we called? Let us state this first. What are we called here? Animals? We are people. Because we are people we must understand our umuntu.2
2. muntu/ jina tu: muntu/ tunaweza kuuliza: ya kama muntu iko nini? tangu mafundisho yetu: katika Jamaa takatifu ya Mungu: tunajibu ya kama: muntu iko mawazo/ ndiyo muntu: iko mawazo/ muntu: iko mawazo gani? ... kufuata tena: na tunajibu: ya kama muntu: iko mawazo ya kutafu- ya kutafuta/ pale muntu: banaachana na Mungu/ kwa sababu: mawazo ya Mungu: si ya kutafuta/ kama sisi wantu/ lakini mawazo ya wantu: ni ya kutafu- ya kutafuta/
2. Muntu. Let us take just the name muntu. We can ask: What is man according to our teaching, the teaching in the holy Jamaa of God? We answer that muntu is mawazo (thoughts). Yes, muntu is mawazo. What kind of mawazo is man? We will have to ask further and we answer: "Man is thought of searching." That is the point where man and God are different, because the thoughts of God are not thoughts of searching, as is the case with us people. But the thoughts of men are thoughts of searching.
3. sababu/ Mungu: kama anataka kwa mawazo yake yee: kama anawaza: anataka: kwa mara inakuwa: kama vile anata- anataka/ sababu yee ni wa nguvu yo-yote/ alafu sisi wantu: kwa mawazo yetu: kadiri vile tulipewa na Mungu: kama tunawaza: na tunataka: tunapashwa kutafu- kutafuta/ ndyo kupata ile inye mafaa/ bila kutafuta: hatuwezi hapa- hapana/ ni kule muntu banaachana na Mu- na Mungu/ inaonekana inasikilika ya kama Mungu ni wa nguvu yo- yote/ ya uwezo wo- wote/ na sisi wantu: mm: tunapashwa kutafuta/ ni lazima kutafuta/ tupate kuwa na inye mafaa/ yambo yetu bababa na bamama/ yambo yetu baba/
3. The reason is this: When God has a desire in his thoughts, when he thinks and has a wish, it comes true immediately, just as he desires. Because he has all the power.3 But we people, when we think our thoughts the way God has given it to us, when we wish we must search. This is how we get what is necessary and good. Without searching we are incapable of getting anything. This is where man and God are different. Clearly, God has all the power, all the might. And we people we must search. It is necessary to search so that we get what is necessary and good. Greeting.
4. sasa: ile mawazo tulisema sasa: ya kama muntu iko mawazo/ nazani tunaweza kuluria [kurudia] ku mukongo/ tulianza kama kati kati/ ile mawazo: muntu alipata wapi? kila muntu: ile mawazo: alipewa na Mungu mwenye- mwenyewe/ alipata kwa Mungu/ na ile mawazo tulipewa kwa Mungu: namna gani? namna mbali mbali? ao namna moya? Ile mawazo: sisi wote wantu tu: bila kuchagula kabila: wala rangi: mukubwa ao munene; mufupi: mulefu; muzee: eh: kijana: mutoto: wote wote tu tulipewa namna mo- moja/ tulipata ile mawazo kwa Mungu namna mo- moja/
4. Now let us get to the mawazo we spoke about: the fact that man is mawazo. I think we can go back a little because we began in the middle. From where did man get these mawazo? Every man got these mawazo from God himself. He got them from God. And how did we get these mawazo from God? Each in a different way or all in the same way? We people, all of us, received these mawazo in one and the same way, without any regard for the tribe or the color, no matter whether one is big and fat, or short or tall, whether he is old or young, a man or a child. We got these thoughts from God in one and the same way.
5. na ile mawazo tulipata kwa Mungu: ilikuwa ngapi? ile mawazo wote tulipewa mawazo kwa Mungu: mawazo makubwa ta- tatu/ taye ile mawazo tatu: baba/ tulipewa mawazo ya ubaba: ya umwana: ya roho mutakatifu mapendo/ ndiyo baba: tunasikia: ya kama tulipewa ya ubaba: ya umwana: na ya roho mutakatifu mapendo/
5. And these thoughts we received from God, how many were there? All the thoughts we received from God were the three great thought. Name the three thoughts, baba. (Baba X answers:) We were given the thoughts of ubaba (being a parent), of umwana (being a child), and of the Holy Spirit, love.4 (Baba Kondo continues:) Yes, baba, we understand that we received the thought of ubaba, of umwana, and of the Holy Spirit, love.
6. alafu ile hatuachana na Mungu? kama tulipewa namna ile? twiko kama Mungu: tuseme: maneno baba ukweli ni paka Mungu/ mwana ukweli ni paka Mungu/ roho ya mapendo ni paka Mungu/ kumbe sisi twiko kama Mungu/ tulipewa mawazo ya uzima: uzazi: na mapendo/ mmm/ Mungu kwa ubaba wake alitupa uzi- uzima/ kwa umwana wake: alitupa uza- uzazi/ kwa umoya wake: alitupa mape- mapendo/
6. But is there no difference between us and God if we are endowed in such a way? We may say that we are like God, because the true baba is God alone. The true mwana is God alone. The true spirit of love is God alone. Therefore we are like God. (Someone else:) We were given the thoughts of uzima, uzazi, and mapendo.5 (Baba Kondo continues:) Yes, through his being father, God gave us life-force. Through his being child, he gave us fecundity. Through his being one, he gave us love.
7. sisi twiko wantu: hatwiko karibu na Mungu? ile unataya ni ya Mungu mwenyewe/ sisi twiko wantu/ tuseme lungeni: tulipewa wote ile mawazo makubwa ta- tatu/ ya uzima: uzazi: na mapendo/ kwa sababu Mungu yeye ni baba: ni mwana: ni umoja/ ndyo kusema: kwa ubaba wake: vile yee iko baba: alitupa uzi- uzima/ tupate: kwa sababu kama muntu ni muzima: atafanana na Mungu baba ya- yake/ kama tuna wazima: uzima wa roho: sana sana: tunafanana na Mungu ba- baba/ na kwa umwana wake: Mungu anatupa uza- uzazi/ na kwa umoja wake: sababu ni umoja tunapata mape- mapendo/ kumbe wote tulipata ile mawazo makubwa ta- tatu/ bote: bote: bote: bote/
7. We are people, aren't we close to God? What you mentioned comes from God himself. We are people. Let us say this again, we all received these three great thoughts: the thoughts of life-force, of fecundity, and of love. Because God is father, he is child, and he is unity. In other words, trough his being father, since he is father, he gave us life-force. Because if a man is full of life he resembles his God. When we are full of life, truly full of the life of the spirit, then we resemble God, the father. And through his being child, God gave us fecundity. Through his being one, because of his being unity, we receive love. Therefore we all receive these three great thoughts. Truly all of us.
hapa tunasema: hatuwezi kuchagua: hakuna uchaguzi pale: ya mweupe: mweusi: mwekunda: kabila: rangi: non/ non/ hakuna/ munene: mudogo: mufupi: muzee: kijana: mutoto: hapana/ sisi wote: wote: wote: tulipewa ile mawazo kwa Mungu: baba yetu namna mo- moja/
8. At this point we say we cannot choose. There is no way to choose between white, black, red, tribe or color. No, no.6 There is no choosing betweeen large or small, or short, or old, young man or child, no. We have all received these thoughts from God, our father, in one and the same way.
9. ni kule sisi wantu: tunapashwa kuacha majivuno yoyo- yoyote/ kwa sababu hatuwezi kujivuna: hatuwezi kuwaza ya kama: mi minamupita ule: mi minamupita huyu/ mimi ni mukubwa: ao mimi ni wa mali: mimi ni hivi na hivi: hapana/ hapana/ kwa sababu tulipewa kwa Mungu: kila muntu tulipewa mawazo yake namna mo- moja/
9. This is where we people must abandon any kind of pride and conceit, because we cannot pride ourselves. We cannot think, "I am more than this one, I am more than this person. I am important, or I am wealthy, or I am this or that." No, no. Because every man received from God his thoughts in one and the same way.
10. ni kule hata tulivumbua: ya kama mwanamuke si muntu wa wwisho: si muntu wa bule: ni muntu kama mimi/ muzungu si muntu wa bule: si mukubwa tu: si wa mali tu: ni muntu kama mi- miye/ mwekunda: anayenga wapi: si maneno ya yee iko mwekunda: hata ingine mweusi: si kwa maneno yayo: lakini wote twiko namna mo- moja/ kumbe tuseme muzuri: twiko paka mbele ya Mungu muntu mo- moja/ ni moja tu/ mbele yake/ kumbe kila muntu ni ndugu/ kila muntu ni mutoto wa Mungu/ kwa sababu Mungu alitupa tu namna mo- moja/ hakuna ngisi ya kujivuna kwa mwenzetu/ hakuna ngisi ya kusahau mwingine: wala kumuonea: kuchukia: kuchambula: kufanya namna yote tunafanyaka fujo mu duni- mu dunia/ 10. This where we discovered that it is not woman who deserves the last place. She is not a useless person. She is a human being like me. The white man is not a useless person.7 He is not just a boss or a rich man. He is a human being like me. The red man, wherever he lives, it doesn't matter whether he is red or whether someone else is black.8 This is of no importance. Rather we are all of one and the same kind. So let us say correctly: before God we are one man. Yes, it is one man before him. Therefore every man is a brother. Every man is the child of God, because God has endowed us in one and the same way. Therefore there is no reason to look down on our fellow man. There is no reason to forget the other, to look down on him, to hate him, to criticize, all the things we usually do to create trouble on earth.
11. kwa sababu ni kusahau umuntu wetu/ kama tulisikia umuntu wetu: hatuwezi kuchukiana: kufanya matata yote na mavuno mu dunia/ tulipashwa kujua ya kama wote twiko namna mo- moja/ kumbe huyu anipite: mimi simupite: mimi niko kama ye- yeye/ si maneno iko mwanamuke: si maneno iko mwanaume/ hapana/ sisi wote ni namna mo- moja/ tunasikia hapa sisi wote ya kama tulipewa kwa Mungu uzima wetu: uzazi wetu: mapendo yetu: namna mo- moja/ 11. All this means to forget our umuntu. If we would understand our umuntu we could not hate each other and cause all the trouble and conflict in the world. We should know that we all are equal. This one should not surpass me. I should not surpass him. I am just like he is. It doesn't matter that this person is a woman and that I am a man. No. We all are equal. We all understand that we received from God our life-force, our fecundity, and our love, in one and the same way.
12. alakini tunapashwa kutafuta ule uzima wetu: na uzazi wetu: na mapendo yetu: tupate kufanana na Mungu mwenye- mwenyewe/ tupate kufanana naye: kupima kustahili ubaba wa Mungu ba- baba/ umwana wa- wake/ umoja wa- wake/ kama tunatimia vizuri: uzima: uzazi: na mape- na mapendo/ kwa sababu tulisema sasa ya kama tuna mawazo ya kutafu- ya kutafuta/ kumbe mawazo yetu: tulipata kwa Mungu: tunapashwa kutafu- kutafuta/ kwa kupata/ kwa kupata kustahili ubaba wa Mungu/ kufanana naye/ umwana wake: umoja wake wa mapendo/ bila kutafuta na tutabaki: tutashuka: tunashuka: tunashuka: tunakuwa wapagano kabisa/ tutabaki paka wantu wa kiburi: wantu wa chuki: wantu wa matata wa kila namna/ hatuwezi: hatuwezi kupima kusikia utamu na uzuri wa Mungu/ katika ubaba wake: umwana: na umoja wa- wake/ kwa sababu hatutafute/ 12. But we must search for this our life-force, or our fecundity, and our love, so that we may resemble God himself. May we resemble him and try to be worthy of the fatherhood of God, of his childhood, and of his unity. (We will be worthy) if we reach perfection in life-force, fecundity, and love. Because we just said that we have the idea of searching. Therefore we must search for these our thoughts which we received from God so that we may become worthy of his childhood and of his unity of love. Without search we will stand still. We will go down, down, and down, and down until we become real pagans. We will remain people of arrogance, people of hatred, and people of all kinds of trouble. It will be impossible for us to try and understand the sweetness and goodness of God in his fatherhood, in his childhood, and his unity, because we do not search.
13. kumbe ni lazima: ni lazima: kuiongea sana: katika nkundi letu jamaa ya Mungu: tupate kutafuta mawazo yetu/ Mungu alitupa mawazo yetu: na tunaweka tu: tunaacha tu: kuitimia hapana: kuitafuta hapana: hatuwezi kupanda kwa kufanana na Mungu/ kwa sababu Mungu yee mwenyewe alisema: tutaumba muntu: awe mufano ye- yetu/ aah/ ni wakati gani tunatafuta kufanana na Mungu? Mungu alisema tutaumba muntu awe mufano ye- yetu/
tutafanana nayee ku nini? bila kutimia mawazo/ kumbe mawazo yetu ni lazima/ na tunapashwa kuitafuta/ tutafute uzima wetu: tutafute uzazi wetu: na tutafute raapendo ye- yetu/ tupate kufanana na Mungu/
13. Therefore it is necessary that we become more of us in our group, the Jamaa of God, so that we may search our thoughts. God gave us our thoughts, but we just leave it at that. We are not trying to perfect them, we are not trying to search for them. Therefore we cannot rise to resemble God. God himself said, "Let us create man that he may be our image." Now, when do we seek to resemble God? God said, "Let us create man so that he may be our image." In what are we going to resemble him without realizing thoughts? Therefore our thoughts are necessary and we must search for them. Let us seek our life-force, let us seek our fecundity, and let us seek our love, so that we may resemble God.
14. tunaona mifano/ si ndyo pale tunaona mufano ya eklesia/ eklesia: tangu wamitume: mupaka sasa/ tunaona mapadri/ ni wamitume/ banakuja: banakwenda popote/ papa ya Roma anakabula mitume popote/ sababu ya nini? sababu ya kutafuta/ mawazo yao/ mawazo tulipewa kwa Mungu/ bapate kufungula ubaba wa Mungu: na umwana na umoja wake kati ya wantu/ bapate kuanganisha wantu na Mungu wa- wao/ bantu bapate bote kuamuka/ kuamuka kwa kusema: eeh: kumbe niko mawazo: mungu alinipa kintu kikubwa/ napashwa kuitimia nipate kufanana na Mungu/ kumbe ni lazima: sisi wote wenye kufuata: wamitume wa Bwana Yezu/ na tunapashwa kujuana: ni lazima kujuana umuntu we- wetu/ ni kama tunajuana umuntu wetu: ah: tutapima/ tutapima kutafuta: kufanana na Mungu baba yetu/ ni mbele ya byote/ mbele ya byote/ nazani matata yote ya dunia ni pale/ kama sisi wote: bila kuchagula kabila: tunakazana tu/ sababu ya kujuana umuntu wetu: tutamaliza kiburi: tutamaliza chuki: na matata yoyote/ tutabaki wandugu tu/ tutabaki kama muntu moja tu mbele ya Mu- ya Mungu/ 14. We see examples. There is the example of the church, the church from the time of the apostles up to the present. We see the priests. They are the apostles. They come and they go everywhere. The Pope of Rome sends apostles everywhere. Why? To search. Their idea is to set free the thoughts that we received from God, to set free the fatherhood of God, and his childhood, and his unity among the people, so they may unite the people with their God. They want all people to wake up. That they wake up and say, "Oh, I am mawazo. God gave me a great thing. I must try hard so that I may resemble God." Therefore it is necessary that we all become followers of the apostles of the Lord Jesus and we must know each other. It is necessary that we know each other in our umuntu. Once we know each other in our umuntu, yes, then we shall try. We shall try to search, to resemble God, our father. This comes before everything else. Before everything else. I think this is where all the trouble in this world comes from. If we all would work together, regardless of tribe, to know each other in our umuntu, then we would overcome the pride and hatred and all sorts of trouble. We shall simply be brothers and we shall live before God like one man.
15. ile ni kipande moya ya umuntu wetu: tunapashwa kuendelea: ni ile habari mukubwa ya mawazo matatu tulipokea kwa Mungu mwenye- mwenyewe/ ile mawazo yetu tatu/ tulisema ya mbele: ya kama ni uzi- ni uzima/ ile uzima inafuata muntu muzima vile vile/ na tunaona hapa mu dunia: muntu ya kama iko mu bipande: bipande mbi- mbili/ bipande ya muntu iko bipande mbili: kipande ya roho na ya mwi- na ya mwili/ tuna na roho na mwi- na mwili/ ndiyo/ hivi: hata ile uzima wetu: Mungu anatupa: anatupa uzima wa roho na wa mwi- na wa mwili/ eeeh: uzazi/ Mungu anatupa vile vile uzazi wa roho nawa- na wa mwili/ eeeh: mapendo: roho ya umoja: Mungu anatupa mapendo ya roho na ya- na ya mwili/ kufuata vile muntu ilikuwa/ kwa sababu munajua: muntu hapa dunia: ile Mungu aliumba muntu: eh: ni roho pamoja na mwi- na mwili/ inakuwa muntu muzi- muzima/ muntu bila roho: ni paka mwili: tuna na muntu muzima? hapana/ si ndyo pale tunasemaka asema muntu anaku- anakufa/ kwa sababu mawazo inaachana na mwi- na mwili/ hatuna tena na muntu muzima/ na muntu paka roho: bila mwili: tutasema ni muntu? hapana/ tutasema ni nani? malaika: spirit/ ndiyo/ bale ni paka roho tu- tupu/ si bantu: lakini si muntu/ malaika ni muntu? hapana/ si muntu/ kwa sababu ni- ni roho tu/ Mungu: ni muntu? hapana/ Mungu ni paka roho tu- tupu/ lakini muntu: eh: muntu muzima: yee iko na roho na mwi- na mwili/ ni vile Mungu kwa uwema wake: hata ile mawazo yetu tatu: anatupa paka namna hivi: anakabula kufuata paka muntu: uzima wa roho na mwi- na mwili/ uzazi wa roho na mwi-na mwili/ mapendo ya roho na mwi- na mwili/ 15. This is one chapter (of the teachings) on our umuntu. Now we must go farther in this great message of the three thoughts we received from God himself. We said before that (one of the thoughts) is life-force. This life-force regards the entire man. Now we see here on earth that man has two parts. There are two parts of man: soul and body. We have soul and body. Yes, and the life-force God gave us, he gave it to us as life of the soul and life of the body. And the fecundity. God gave us in the same way fecundity of the soul, fecundity of the body. And then love, the spirit of unity. God gave us love of the soul and love of the body. And this corresponds to man's constitution because you know: man whom God created here on earth is soul and body. He is a total man.9 Man without soul is just body.10 Do we still have a full human being? No. This is when we say the man has died, because mawazo are separated from the body. We no longer have a full human being. And a person who is only spirit without the body, do we call him a human being? No. What do we say he is? (Someone else:) An angel, a spirit. (Baba Nkondo continues) Yes, those are just spirits. They are not people. They are not human beings. Is an angel a human being? No. He is not a human being, because he is just spirit. Is God a human being? No. God is pure spirit.11 But man, the entire man, he has soul and body. So God in his goodness gave us these three thoughts of ours. This is how he wanted man to be. Life of the soul and of the body. Fecundity of the soul and of the body. Love of the soul and of the body.
16. sasa tunasikia ya kama ni vile/ alafu tunaweza kutafuta namna gani? vile nilisema mbele kintu kikubwa ya kama muntu ni mawazo ya kutafu- ya kutafuta/ sasa ni lazima kutafuta/ tunayua: namna ya kutafuta uzima/ tutafanya nini? uzima wa roho/ si ni lazima? tusema kwa mufano/ kama tunaiongea kwa sisi benyewe/ tunatafuta kuingia ku ukristiani/ na tulibatizwa sisi wote/ tuliingia nkundi ya Bwana Yezu: nkundi ya wakristiani: kwa kuwa wazima: ku roho na ku mwi- na ku mwili/ hata kiisha miaka kidogo: ao masiku kidogo: tuliweza kuacha kutimia ukristiani wetu/ roho yetu itakuwa muzima? hapana/ roho yetu itakufa kabi- kabisa/ tunarudi/ tunashuka: tunarudi ku wapagani: hata kupita tena wapaga- wapagani/ kumbe kwa ukristiani wetu: ni lazima kutafuta uzima wetu wa roho/ namna gani? kupokea sakramenta/ sakramenta yote ya lazima: tunapashwa kupokea/ ni dawa ya roho yetu/ kwa sisi benyewe: na kusaidia bengi- bengine/ ni ile yote ni sababu ya kutafuta uzima wetu wa ro -wa roho/ vile tunayua/ kusikia missa: na sakramento ya missa: sakramento ya ukaristia: eh: kuungama: eeh: kukomunika ni kazi yetu mukubwa: vile tunafanya: ni lazima: ni chakula: ni dawa: Bwana Yezu alituachia: sababu ya kudisha: kulinda: kutunza: na kukomesha roho ye- yetu/ roho yetu ipate kuwa roho muzi- muzima/ ni kama twiko na roho muzima: ni roho inafanana na baba yetu wa- wa mbinguni/ ni muntu muzima: si mufu lakini/ ni kule mu Jamaa tunazidi kusema kila mara: kama unatendea mwenzako vibaya: akashirika: anakuwa pahali pa zambi: tunasema unamuu- unamuua/ unasikia desturi mu jamaa asema: ah: baba munaua/ muzuri kwenda kulaguisha/ tunaua nini? tunaua roho ya- yake/ hata tunaona anasimama: iko wa nguvu ya mwili: lakini roho yake ni inye kufa/ kwa sababu tunamutendea vibaya/ na roho yake inachafuka: inatenda zambi: na tunaua roho yake/ ni kintu kikubwa sana/ zamani tulijua paka kufa kwa mwili/ tulijua paka kama unatwanga mwenzako kisu: ao unapiga: unaponona mwili: ao unaua: wote banasema: anaua: muntu anaua: anaua/ tunakumbuka/ na sasa tunapashwa kukumbuka: kujua kabisa kabisa: ya kama hatuwezi kuua roho hapa- hapana/ 16. Now we understand that this is so. But how can we search for it? As I said before, it is a very important thing, namely, that man is thought of searching. Now it is necessary to search. We know a way to seek life-force.12 What shall we do to find life of the soul? Let us take an example (to show what) is necessary. If we should decide to try and join Christianity and if we all would get baptized and join the group of the Lord Jesus, the group of the Christians, in order to become full of life in the soul as well as in the body, but if after a few years or even a few days we would give up trying to improve our Christian faith, is then our soul going to be full of life? No. Our soul will die completely. We will turn back. We will descend. Go down and go back to being the pagans. We will be worse than the pagans. Therefore, in order to realize our Christian faith we must search the life of our soul. How? By receiving the sacraments. All the sacraments necessary, we must receive them. They are medicine for our souls, for ourselves, and to help others. All this is because we search for the life of our soul. We know, to attend mass, the sacraments of the eucharist, go to confession, go to communion, that is our great task. It is necessary. It is food, it is medicine. The Lord Jesus left it to us to feed, to protect, to take care and to make grow our souls so that our souls may be souls full of life. When we have a soul full of life then it is a soul which resembles our father in heaven. It is a full human being, not a dead man. This is why we in the Jamaa say again and again: "If you do evil to your fellow man so that he becomes part of sin," then we say "you are killing him." You know that it is customary in a family to say,13 "Baba, you are the cause of death. It is time to go and consult the diviner." What are we killing? We are killing his soul. Even though we see that he is standing up, that he has the strength of the body, his soul is dying. Because we do evil to him, his soul is spoiled and he commits sin. We kill his soul. This is a very important matter. Of old we only knew how to die bodily. We only knew if you stabbed your fellow man with a knife or struck him or beat his body or tried to kill him, everybody would say, "He is killing (him). Someone is killing." We remember. And now we must remember and understand it very well that we must not kill the soul.
17. sisi benyewe: baba na mama: nyumbani/ tusiuana roho yetu hapana/ hata tusiue roho ya bengine hapana/ lakini tutafute uzima wetu wa- wa roho/ katika ukristiani wetu ni lazima kutumika kazi yetu/ kama vile tulipokea mafundisho wakati ya ubatizo yetu: tulisema ya kama tunamukataa shetani/ na mabaya yake yote/ na mambo yake yote/ tunamukataa/ na tulisema: ya kama: tunapenda tunasariki [sadiki] paka Mungu/ muzima/ tunasariki Mungu: tunasariki mutoto wake wa pekee Bwana Yezu/ tunasariki roho ya umoja mapendo/ na tunasariki amri ya eklesia ya Mungu/ yote tutafuata/ mpaka maisha yetu hapa duniani/ ni kama vile tulisema/ na tunapashwa kufuata neno yetu ya ima- ya imani/ vile tulisema: katika sala yetu ya kusadi- ya kusadiki/ 17. We ourselves, baba and mama in our home, let us not kill each other's soul nor let us kill the soul of someone else. Rather let us search for the life of the soul. In our Christian faith we must work for our task. At the time when we were baptized we received the teaching and we said that we renounced Satan and all his evil deeds and all his devices. We renounce him. And we said that we want to believe in God alone. We believe in God, we believe in His only child Lord Jesus. We believe in the spirit of unity and love. And we believe in the commandments of the church of God. All this we shall seek as long as we live here on earth. This is what we said. And we must follow our promise of faith as we pronounced it in our prayer of faith. As we said in our profession of faith.
18. na kwa kufuata: hatuwezi kufuata ya kinywa tu: ya desturi tu/ ya kusema: mimi ni mukristiani/ ndiyo: tulibatizwa wakati wa mon père? ah? ule mon père alikuwa X: aah: wakati ya mon père Y/ wakati ya mon père Z/ pale alikuwa tshiana [kijana]: anatoka bulaya: nilibatizwa/ nilibatizwa/ na ile mambo yote: ni na mon père tulikuwa tunakwenda/ alakini ni mambo ya bamonpere/ tunaona/ ile ya ubatizo: ile ya machapelet: ya kuwayawaya: na mambo bamonpere tunajua zamani/ mi: si humu mu dunia: najua/ utaniambia nini mutoto? maneno ya ukristiani: ooooh: tulibatizwa zamani/ eeh: machapelet? aah: tulikuwaka naye/ tulifanya ile mambo yote/ ku butoto/ lakini ni mambo ya batoto/ mambo ya bamonpere/ mon père/ mm/ 18. And if we want to follow we cannot follow only with our mouth, or only out of habit, saying, "I am a Christian. Yes, we were baptized at the time of Father -- what's his name? That one was Father X, or at the time of Father Y, or at the time of Father Z when he was a young man and had come from Europe, (that was the time) I was baptized. (Sure) I was baptized. All those things, about the missionary to whom we went. But those are matters of the missionaries we saw: baptism, rosary, and all that sort of stuff. Those are matters of the missionaries, and we have known them long ago. I know, this has nothing to do with real life.14 What are you telling me about it, (my) child? About Christianity? Oh, we were baptized long ago. About the rosaries? Ha. We had one, and we did all these things when we were children. But those are things for children, the affairs of the missionaries. Missionary, indeed."
19. kumbe sasa: ubatizo ilikuwa ya mon pe- ya mon père/ bukristiani bulikuwa bwa mon pe- ya mon père/ chapelet: byote ilikuwa paka bya mon pe- bya mon père/ tangu tulibatizwa tulibeba yote: tunaachia mon pe- mon père/ tunarudia/ eeeh: ni upumbavu/ tunabeba Mungu: tunamupa paka mon pe- mon père/ iko pumbavu/ sababu gani hana Mungu wetu sisi: vile vile? ni kukoswa kuyua bumuntu bwetu/ na sasa tunajua umuntu wetu/ tunajua: monpere: na mimi: na ule: na ule: tulipewa namna moya kwa Mu- kwa Mungu/ Mungu alitupa mawazo yake: tunapashwa kujitafuta: kuitimiza: tupate kufanana na yee mwenye- mwenyewe/ tupate kuishi namna ya kufaa hapa duniani/ mupaka maisha yetu: na kiisha tutarudi kwa baba/ Mungu/ tutaungana naye mu mile- mu milele/ yee mwenyewe wa milele/ ndyo namna ya kutafuta uzima wetu/ hata kusaidia njirani sawa vile amri ya Mungu ilisema/ njirani gani? kwanza kwanza twiko nayo karibu/ karibu/ tumusaidie mama wetu nyumbani: uzima wake wa ro- wa roho/ tumusaidie namna yoyote: katika matata: hata magumu ya nyumba yetu ya ndoa: si maneno: ni mayariko (haribika?) ya shetani/ tumusaidie/ tumusaidie namna ya kufaa/ maneno apate kuwa muzima: apate kuwa na uzima wake wa ro- wa roho/ na mama: umusaidie baba vile vi- vile vile/ ndyo maana katika nkundi letu Jamaa: tunapashwa kufuata wote wawili/ hakuna maneno/ wote: wote wawili/ sisi benye kusikia umuntu wetu/ mama ni muntu kama mi: mimi ni muntu kama yee: kumbe sisi wote tunapashwa kufuata/ tusikie wote namna mo- moja/ hivi tutasaidia/ aaah: ndjo: baba na mama: tutasaidia tena wandugu wo- wote/ si paka wa Jamaa/ si paka nani ao nani/ tutasaidia wandugu wote: namna ya kutenda/ namna ya bitendo byetu bya kutafuta uzima wetu wa roho/ ah: tunasaidia bengine/ hata hatuwezi kufundisha kila nyumba: lakini namna tunatenda inasaidia wote bapate kutafuta uzima wabo wa ro- wa roho/ 19. So, now (we think) baptism was an affair of the missionary. Christianity was an affair of the missionary. The rosary -- everything was just an affair of the missionary. From the time we were baptized we carried all this (with us). Then we left the missionary. Then we turned around (and told ourselves), "This is stupidity." We took God and gave him back to the missionary. "This is stupid," (we said). " Why is he not our God, too?" This was because we failed to know our umuntu. Now we know our umuntu. The missionary, and I, and this one, and that one, we were all made alike by God. God gave us his thoughts and we must search ourselves. We must work on it so that we may resemble him and that we may live a decent life here on earth until we return to the father, God, to be united with him forever. He is eternal. This is how we search for our life. (Or let us take the point) about helping our fellow man just as God's commandment told us. What kind of fellow man? Above all, the one to whom we are close, let us be of help to our mama at home as regards her life of the soul. Let us help her in every way. When there is trouble, and in all the difficulties of our married life. All of this is of no importance. These are the machinations of Satan. Let us help her to live decently so that she may be full of life. That she may be full of the life of her soul. And mama, you should help baba in the same way. This is how we do it in our Jamaa. We must pursue (our aims) together, the two of us. The two of us who understand our umuntu. Mama is a human being like me and I am a human being like her. Therefore we both have to follow (the Jamaa) together so that we understand everything in the same way. This is how we are going to help each other. Yes, baba and mama, let us help furthermore all the brothers. This is not just a matter of the Jamaa or of this one or that one. Let us help all the brothers (by showing them) the way to act, the way we act when we seek the life for our soul. Yes, we help others. Even though we cannot teach every household, the way we behave will help everybody, so that they may search for their life of the soul.
20. na tuna na uzima wa mwili/ tunapashwa kutafuta uzima wa mwili/ ile wote tunayua/ hata tangu zamani/ tuliyua sa- sana/ hata tangu zamani/ yoyote alikumbuka/ sababu ya kutumika kazi/ kupata franga/ kununua chakula/ mavazi/ kwa kutunza mwili/ bote tunayua/ bote tunayua/ alakini mingi sana banatafuta namna ya kishetani/ namna mubaya/ mu ushiku/ kwa mufano: tuseme: kama tunatumika kazi/ kama tunatafuta franga: ao tunalima: namna gani: kwa kupata feza: ya kununua chakula: mavazi: namna yoyote: mwili wetu kama inakuwa mugonjwa: tunafuata dawa kwa munganga/ ao tunaona mugonjwa njiani: tunamusaidia: tunamupeleka ku munganga/ namna yoyote ni vizuri sana/ ni vizuri sana/ ni kazi muzuri: ni kazi ya Mungu vile vile/ lakini bangine banatafuta uzima wa mwili namna ya kipagano/ namna mubaya kama vile bankambo yetu/ ao sisi benyewe/ ni kama mwili ni mugonjwa: kwa kwenda kulaguisha/ ao kutolea mizimu: na kufanya mambo yote ya namna ile/ ile ni kutafuta uzima wetu namna ya kipaga- ya kipagano/ kusema mambo ya bule: bila faida: kwa kupata uzima wa mwili: yee ni mu bushiku/ ao kwenda kwa bapagano: banafanya dawa ya bule/ habawezi kusikia ya kama mu mwili ni maladi gani/ habakufunza kazi ya umunganga kwa kujua sema ni maladi gani/ tusaidia na dawa gani/ hapana/ kwenda kwa mupagano: mupagano asema: ah: ile maneno inakufanya maneno ya mufumu/ utaleta kuku tatu: nipate kufukusha mufumu uliyo dnani mwa- mwako/ utakuwa muzima/ ile si namna wetu wa kutafuta uzima wa mwili hapana/ ile ni kutafuta uzima wa mwili namna ya kipagano/ mu ushiku/ hapana/ sisi tutatafuta uzima wetu wa mwili vizuri/ vile tulisema: kwa kazi yetu: na kwa kufuata dawa kwa munganga/ dawa muzuri: kwa mwenye kujua/ na kuomba Mungu/ apate kusaidia/ eeh: kwa nguvu yake/ kusaidia nguvu mu dawa na yote na benye kutumika ile kazi/ Mungu apate kutusaidia tupate kuendelea: kupata afya muzuri: kujua namna yetu ya kutafuta/ uzima wetu wa mwili/ wantu wengi banajua kutafuta vizuri/ alakini wengi sana banatafuta mu ushiku/ banatafuta namna ya kipapagano/ ile ni kutenda zambi/ na uzima wetu: hatuwezi kuomba uzima wetu wa mwili: kwa shetani/ kwa mizimu/ na mikiya: na mishinga: na mambo ingine ingine: hapana/ ni Mungu alitupa uzi- uzima/ na uzima wetu tutatafuta: tutaomba paka kwa Mungu mwenyewe/ kama vile tulisema hapa/ kwa uzima wa roho: tunatimia amri yote ya Mungu: na amri ya eklesia yake: tunapokea sakramenta: sababu ya kutafuta uzima wetu wa- wa roho/ kwa uzima wa mwili: ni namna moya/ tutamuomba Mungu: atusaidie nguvu ya kutumika kazi/ atusaidie nguvu: ya kutafuta dawa muzuri/ tupate afya muzuri/ na tupate kutumikia roho/ maneno mwili wetu kama ni nguvu: tutapata: ee: ngisi ya kutimia: ya kusaidia roho ye- yetu/ ni vizuri sana/ kusaidia kwa mambo yote tunaona/ 20. And then we have the life of the body. We must pursue the life of the body. We all know that. We have known it long ago and very well. From times immemorial everybody has thought about that -- about doing his work, about making money, about buying food, clothes to protect the body. Everybody knew about that. Everybody. But very many pursued this in the ways of Satan, in a bad way, in the dark. For instance, let us say when we do our work and try to get paid or when we work in the fields to make some cash so that we may be able to buy food and clothes and what not; when our body falls ill we go to the doctor for medicine. Or we see someone who is sick on the road. We help him and carry him to the doctor. All this is very good. Very good indeed. It is good work. It is the work of God as well. But others search for life of the body in the way of the pagans, in a bad way like our ancestors. Even we ourselves. When the body is sick we go and consult the diviner or we make offerings to the spirits and we do all sorts of things of this kind. This is seeking our life the way the pagans do. The one who says meaningless and useless things to gain life for the body is in the dark. Or (if we) go to the pagan who prepares useless medicines. They cannot know what kind of a sickness has befallen the body. They haven't studied medicine to see what kind of sickness it is. With what kind of medicine are they going to help us? (Or if we) go to a pagan and he tells us "The matter that is troubling you has something to do with a sorcerer, bring three chickens so that I can chase away the sorcerer who is inside you. Then you will be healthy. This is not the way we search for the life of the body. This is searching for the life of the body in the pagan way, in the dark. Let us search for the life of our body in the right way, as we said, through our work and by going after medicines from the doctor15 , good medicines from someone who knows about them and then (we should) pray to God that he may help us in his power, help us trough his power in the medicine, through everything, and through those who carry out this work (the doctors). God may help us so that we may progress and be in good health. That we may know how to search our life for the body. Many people know how to search (for it) in the right way, but very many search for it in the dark, they search the pagan way. This means to commit a sin. We cannot ask the life that is our life for the body from Satan, from spirits, from mikiya and mishinga16, and what else there may be. No. God gave us life-force and, to search for our life, let us ask for it from God himself. It is as we said about the life of the soul. Let us fulfil all the commandments and the commandments of his church. We receive the sacraments in order to search for our life of the soul and, as far as the life for the body is concerned, it is the same. Let us pray to God that he may help us and give us strength to work. He may help us with strength to go and search for good medicines so that we may have good health and that we may be able to exert our soul. Because if our body is strong then we will find a way to exert, to help our soul. It is very good to take help from all things that we see.
21. ao kama tunaona matata na mavumo ya duniani/ ni sisi wantu tunakumbuka mwili wetu/ tunakumbuka uzima wetu wa mwili/ tunasikia woga: na yote/ tutafanya nini? tutafanya vita na mipanga: na bunduki/ pale tutaomba Mungu/ tutamuomba Mungu atusaidie/ ni ukosefu wetu: kwa sababu hatuyue umuntu we- wetu/ ni pale matata iningia/ lakini tumuombe Mungu atuangazie sisi wote/ atupe ama- amani/ ya kweli/ sisi wote bila kuchagula kabila/ kwa sababu tulisema ya kama Muntu alitupa wote namna mo- moja/ ukosefu wetu ni sababu hatujuana umuntu wetu/ mukosefu ni mukosefu/ si maneno ya iko fulani: si maneno ya kabila yake: hapana/ ni mukosefu/ maneno hatujuana umuntu we- wetu/ na tutamuomba Mungu mwenye mapenzi mwema: Mungu wa nguvu yote ni yeye/ yeye wa nguvu yote anaweza kutusaidia kwa mara tunapata ima- imani/ ni yeye Mungu mutajiri/ kwa utajiri wake anaweza kutusaidia: tunapata ile tunapashwa kupata/ ni wa furaha yote/ atatusaidia: tupashwa kuwa na furaha ya kwe- ya kweli/ ni ndjo namna ya kutafuta uzima wetu wa roho na wa mwi- na wa mwili/ yambo yetu bababa na bamama/ yambo yetu baba/ 21. Or when we look at all the trouble and unrest in this world. I is because we people think (only) of our body. We think of life of our body. We are full of fear. What shall we do? Shall we make war with knives and guns? Let us pray to God. Let us pray God that He may help us. (All this trouble) is because we are sinners, because we do not know our umuntu. This is where the trouble comes in. But let us pray to God that he may enlighten all of us, that he may give true peace to all of us regardless of the tribe. Because we said that God endowed all of us in the same way. We are sinners because we do not know each other in our umuntu. A sinner is a sinner. (He is not a sinner) because he is a certain person, nor because he belongs to a certain tribe. He is a sinner because we do not know each other in our umuntu. And let us pray to God who is full of goodness, God who has all the power. He has all the power and he will be able to help us so that we receive faith at once. He is a rich God and in his wealth he will be able to help us so that we receive what we need. He is the source of all joy. He will help us and then we will be truly full of joy. This is how we should search for our life, of the soul and of the body. Greeting.
22. wazo la mpili tulisema: tulipokea kwa Mungu uzazi/ sisi wote/ ndiyo/ uzazi gani? uzazi wa roho na wa- na wa mwili/ tunapashwa kutafuta vile vile/ na tunapashwa kupenda uzazi wetu wa roho na wa mwili/ 22. We said that as a second thought we received from God fecundity. All of us. What kind of fecundity? Fecundity of our soul and of the body. And we must search for it in the same way. We must love our fecundity of the soul and of the body.
23. uzazi wety wa roho/ ni kintu tulisahau sana/ tangu zamani/ hatukujua ya kama ni lazima/ kwa sababu wote tulisemaka: kazi ya kufundisha wantu: kazi ya kusaidia wantu/ bapate kutoka upagano: bapate kuingia ku ukristlani: na hivi hivi: ni kazi ya mon père/ na wa bamasoeur/ wale bantu: wale ndyo bantu ya Mungu/ sisi hapana/ mimi nilikwenda kwa mon père: maneno ya masomo/ na mambo ya ku utoto/ ile ni kazi yao/ hapana/ mon père anatuonyesha mufano: ya kutafuta uzazi wa roho/ (Interruption) ndiyo: tunendelee sababu ya uzazi/ tulisema ya kama tulipewa vile vile uzazi wa roho na ma mwi- na wa mwili/ uzazi wetu wa roho ni kintu tulizidi kusahau sana sana tangu milele/ na ile kazi tulisema ya kama ni ya mon père: ya bamasoeur: ni kazi ya utoto/ si kazi yetu sisi wote hapana/ hapana: ile ni udanganyifu wa shetani/ na uzazi wetu wa roho: tulipata mifano kwa wapadri: eeh: mabikira: na namna yoyote/ tuliona banagawanya popote: mu inchi muzima/ ni juu ya nini? ni juu ya kutafuta uzazi wa roho/ ni uzazi wa roho: ni uzazi mukubwa sana/ tunaweza kuzaa kujaza duni- dunia/ vile Mungu mwenyewe anataka/ 23. Our fecundity of the soul is something that we have very much forgotten, since long ago. We no longer know that it is necessary. Because we all used to say, "The task to teach people, the task to help people so they may leave paganism and may enter Christianity and all these things, this is the task of the missionary and of the sisters. Those people are the people of God, not we." "I went to the missionary in order to get to school and all the other things one does during childhood. This is their business." No. The missionary showed us an example how to search for the fecundity of the soul. (Interruption)
All right, let us continue with fecundity. We said that we received fecundity of the soul and of the body. Our fecundity of the soul is something we have forgotten very much since long ago. We talked about this task and said that it is the task of the missionary and of the sisters and that it is something that has to do with childhood. It is not the task of all of us. No, (I tell you) this is a trick of Satan. As far as our fecundity of the soul is concerned, we had examples from the fathers and the sisters17, all kinds of examples. We saw that they have spread everywhere, all over the country. And why? In order to search for fecundity of the soul. Fecundity of the soul is great fecundity indeed. We can give birth and fill the earth as it is God's own will.
24. tunajua sisi wote uzazi wa mwili: tunawaza kuzaa tano sita kumi: ah: ile kizazi inaisha/ lakini kizazi ya roho: tutaweza kuzaa: kuzaa: kuzaa: kujaza duni- dunia/ ni kizazi ya kweli hata kuliko ya mwili/ najua wantu wote banakuombalia paka uzazi wa mwili/ banasema mambo mingi mingi mingi/ lakini hatukujue ya kama tuna na kizazi mukubwa: kizazi ya roho/ tunapashwa kutafuta kizazi ya roho/ kwa sababu ni lazima/ Mungu ku umwana wake: alitupa uza- uzazi/ na tunapashwa kutimiza hiyi kizazi/ namna gani? namna tunafanya sasa/ tunapashwa kufundisha wantu/ maneno ya dini yetu/ kuwasaidia wantu: kwa kufuata mafundisho/ kwa mifano yetu: kwa bitendo byetu/ bantu bapate kuzaliwa: bapate kuzaliwa ndani ya eklesia yetu/ bapate kufuata neno la Mungu/ neno la imani/ bapate kuwa wazima/ bapate uzima vile tulisema ku mbe- ku mbele/ 24. We all know fecundity of body. We can have five, six, ten (children), but then the family is complete.18 But when it comes to the family of the soul we can give birth and give birth and give birth and fill the earth. This is the true family much more so than the family of the body. I know that all people only pray for the fecundity of the body. They say a lot of things. But we do not know that we have the great family, the family of the soul. We must search for the family of the soul because this is necessary. God, through his being child gave us fecundity. And we must work for this family. How? The way we do it now. We must teach people the matters of our religion. We must help people follow the instructions through our example and through our deeds so that people may be born, that they may be born in our church. That they may follow the word of God, the word of faith, and that they may be full of life, that they may be full of life, as we have said before.
25. ile: wale watoto wote tutazaa: watoto wetu wa roho: ni wandugu: ni warafiki wa kweli kweli kweli kweli/ kama banapata uzima wao wa milele: wakati ya maisha yao: ao mbele yetu: sisi bado kufa: bado kurudia kwa Mungu: tunakumbuka: wale watoto wote tutazaa: batatasuhau? hapana/ batatusaidia kwa Mungu/ batatuombea/ Mungu apate kutusaidia na sisi maisha mwema/ na siku moya tukaonane nao kwa Mungu baba/ tukapate uzima wa kweli: uzima wa mile- wa milele/ juu ya ile kizazi/ kizazi yetu ya roho/ ni lazima sana sana sana/ ni vile minaona katika Jamaa yetu: wababa na wamama: banapima kufundishana/ banapima kutenda mwema kwa mifano na bitendo/ ni sababu ya kuzaa/ sababu ya kupata kizazi ya- ya roho/ 25. All those children, the children that we are going to engender as our children of the soul, they are brothers and sisters. They are truly friends. And when they reach their eternal life-force while they are still with us, or before us, before we die and return to God, then we remember all those children which we are going to have -- are they going to forget us? No. They are going to help us with God. They are going to pray for us so that God may help us and may give us a good life. And that one day we shall see each other again (when we are) with God, the father. That we shall receive true life, eternal life. Because of this family, because of our family of the soul, this will be necessarily so indeed. And this is what I see in our Jamaa where baba and mama are trying to teach each other. They are trying to do good in examples and in deeds. (And they do it) in order to give birth, in order to have a family of the soul.
26. ni kama tunazaa: kizazi ya roho: hata sisi tunazaliwa vile vi- vile vile/ tunazaa sababu ya kuzali- ya kuzaliwa/ ni maana munasikia hapa katika jamaa yetu: tunaitana/ hata unaingia leo: minaita baba wangu: mama wa- wangu/ na wee unaita baba na ma- na mama/ tulimuzaa tupate kuzali- kuzaliwa/ ni lazima sana: kutafuta kizazi yetu ya roho/ munaona mufano kwa eklesia/ popote: anafanya nini? anasema: mi sina na watota wa mwili: kumbe minaacha paka vile/ banatafuta kizazi ya roho/ bale bote banazaliwa: katika ... sisi wote tulibatizwa: kwa mikono ya eklesia/ na tulipewa masakramenta yote mbali mbali/ kwa mikono ya eklesia/ na banaendelea: banaendelea/ na kazi ya namna ile: ni kuzaa/ kuzaa kwa roho/ ni kama vile munaona/ bababa na bamama banapima: kufundishana: kusaidia bangine: ni sababu ya kizazi ya- ya roho/ ni kizazi muzuri sana sana sana/ ao kusaidia wagonjwa: sababu ya kuita mupadri: apate kupokea sakramenta yake ya mwisho: na mambo yote ya namna ile: ni kizazi ya roho/ kusaidiana wakati ya: wakati mukubwa: ya mafête makubwa ya eklesia/ wakati wa paska: na wakati wa noël: na mambo ya namna hiyi: kusaidia wote: tunayenga nao: marafiki na bandugu bote/ namna ya kusema: mu kuongopa Mungu wabo/ wee uko mukristiani/ unapashwa: hauwezi kukosa kwenda wakati wa paska kuungama na kukomunika/ uko mutoto wa Mungu/ na bantu banasikia ile sauti la Mungu kwabo: banageuka: banafuata missa: na banakomunika: na yote/ unazaa: uko nabazaa: ni kizazi kikubwa kya roho/ ni kizazi kikubwa sa- sana/ Mungu anapenda sana sana sana/ 26. And when we give birth, birth to a family of the soul, then we are going to be born ourselves. We give birth in order to be born. This explains the way in which you hear us call each other in our Jamaa. Even if you enter today, I call you my baba or my mama, and you call me baba or mama. We gave birth to this person so that we may be reborn. We must seek our family of the soul. You see an example in the Church. What is (the Church) doing everywhere? They say, "I do not have children of the body, and I leave it at that." They (the missionaries) seek a family of the soul. And all of them are born: we were all baptized in the arms of the church and received the sacraments from the hands of the church, one after the other from the hands of the Church. And they progress, they progress with this kind of work, which means to give birth, to give birth through the soul. This is how you see it, bababa and bamama try to teach each other, to help others. And this is because of the family of the soul. It is a very good family indeed. Be it to help the sick by calling the missionary so that a person may receive his last sacraments, and all the things of this kind, (they are done) for the family of the soul. To help each other during the great times, during the great holidays of the church at Easter or at Christmas, and all things of this kind, to help everybody with whom we live together, our friends and all our brothers, by telling them to fear their God: You are a Christian, you must not fail to go to confession and communion during Easter time, you are a child of God. And people will hear this voice of God at their place; they will change, attend mass, go to communion, and everything. (This means) that you give birth. You give birth to them. This is the great family of the soul. A great family indeed. And God loves this very much.
27. si Bwana Yezu yee mwenyewe: alisema/ alisema ya kama tunapashwa kusaidiana na kuzalana/ alisema tena na wamitume yake ya kama niko na kondoo mingi sa- sana/ ingine haina mu nyumba humu/ iko mingi sana/ unapashwa: na mutume Petro: ya kama unapashwa kuchunga kondoo zangu/ na watoto wa ko- wa kondoo/ na ile kazi hatuwezi kuacha: ya kama ni paka ya wamonpère: ya mapadri/ na mon père ni kidogo sana/ na sisi wakristiani twiko wengi tunaongezeka/ na tunapashwa kuwasaidia/ kusaidiana/ hivi tutazaa dunia muzima/ dunia muzima itageuka inchi ya Mungu/ inchi ya Bwana Yezu/ ndyo kule matata na mavumo ya dunia itamalizika/ ile ni kizazi muzuri sa- sana/ 27. Was it not the Lord Jesus himself who told us that we must help each other and give birth to each other? And he said to his apostles: "I have very many sheep, others, who are not in this house here. There are very many." Then he told the Apostle Peter, "You must guard my sheep, and the children of the sheep." We cannot abandon this task and say that it is the business of the missionaries and of the fathers. There are only very few missionaries while we Christians, we have grown to great numbers. Therefore we must help them. We must help each other. And this is how we are going to give birth to the entire world. The entire world is going to change into the land of God, the land of the Lord Jesus. This will be the end of all the trouble and disturbances of the world. This is a very good family indeed.
28. hata kizazi yetu ya mwili/ twiko tena na uzazi wa mwili/ ni muzuri/ ni Mungu mwenyewe/ alitaka vile/ tunaweza kuitafuta/ ni vizuri sana/ Mungu: yee anapenda sana: ni kama anatuma watoto nyumbani: ni vizuri/ tutabapokea vile/ kama hatuna watoto nyumbani: hatuwezi kuingia ku mambo ya kipagano/ kutafuta mu ushiku kama vile nilisema mbele/ kufanya madawa ya bule: kutolea mizimu: kufanya matata: kuvunja mandoa yetu: sababu ya kuamba ya kama: aah: ni bibi mubaya: hazalake/ ni bwana mubaya: tunapashwa kuvunja ndoa: maneno mimi sipate watoto: na namna ile: hapana/ tutaomba kwa Mungu mwenyewe/ kwa mapendo yake kama anataka: atatu- atatuma/ kama (h)atuma tena: tunapashwa kumupigia paka aksanti/ ni kizazi muzuri/ ile wote tunayua/ wote tunatafutaka tangu zamani/ bote banakuombalia kutafuta kutafuta kizazi ile: asema ni muzuri sana/ alakini tena tunatafuta bila Mungu/ tunatafuta ku nguvu yetu mara ingine/ ni ile tunapashwa kusaidia benzetu: ya kama yote tulipewa kwa Mungu mwenye- mwenyewe/ itatoka kwa Mungu/ si kwa nguvu yetu: si kwa matata yetu ya dunia/ ile ni udanganyifu wa shetani/ tutaanguka bule/ 28. Even our family of the body -- we also have fecundity of the body -- is good. God himself wanted it that way and we can pursue it. This is very good. God loves it very much. If he sends children to our house, then it is good. Let us receive them in this way. And when we do not have children in our house, then we must not go into the things of paganism and search in the dark as we have said before: prepare useless medicines, offer to the ancestors' spirits, cause trouble, break up our marriages, saying that this is a bad wife because she does not give birth (or): "This is a bad husband. We must break up the marriage because I do not get any children" and all things of this kind. No (this must not happen). Let us pray to God himself. In his love, if he wishes he will send us (children). And even if he does not send us any we still must be thankful. This is a good family. We all know it. We all have been seeking it since long ago. All have been praying and searching for this family, and it is good indeed. But then we seek without God. We seek sometimes only with our own force. In this we must help our fellow men (and tell them) that we all were endowed by God himself. It comes from God, not from our own strength, not from our own troubles of this world. This is a trick of Satan. (If we follow him) then this will be our fall.
29. ile ni namna ya kutafuta uzazi wetu wa roho na wa mwi- na wa mwili/ tutafute paka kwa Mungu mwenyewe: tumuombe paka Mungu mwenye- mwenyewe/ ao kazi ya kufundishana tulisema paka hapa ni paka tunaomba nguvu kwa Mungu mwenyewe/ tunaona: katika sala yetu/ tupashwa kupata nguvu: tupashwa kufundisha mambo ya Mungu ya kwe- ya kweli/ vile udanganyiwa na shetani/ tutamuomba Mungu: atushushee Mungu roho mutakatifu: tupate kufundisha mambo ya dini ya kwe- ya kweli/ 29. This is the way we should seek our fecundity of the soul and of the body. Let us seek it only trough God himself. Let us pray only to God himself. And as regards our task of teaching each other, about which we just talked, we must ask strength from God himself. We see that in our prayer we shall receive strength and we shall receive the ability to teach the matters of God truly. This is how you are cheated by Satan.19 Let us pray to God that He may send God the Holy Ghost so that we may be able to teach the matters of religion truly.
30. na tuna na eklesia: tuna na wapadri wetu kwa kutusaidia/ kwa kazi ya kufundishana: tuna na wapadri/ hatusikie vizuri: tutamuomba/ batatusaidia/ tutasaidiana kufundishana/ ni kama tunasula (= tunazua?): aah: tutalindwa kwa nani? na shetani? atatudanganya/ atatupeleka njia ingine: njia ya shetani/ tutayue ya kama: twiko mu njia ya Mungu: kumbe tunaisha kutoka mu njia ya Mungu zama- zamani/ tutawazia bangine ya kama habana mu njia ya Mungu/ beko mu njia ya Mungu? habayue/ ni sisi tutajua ya kama sisi twiko mu njia ya Mungu: alakini tuliisha kutoka njia ya Mungu zama- zamani/ kwa sababu ni kazi ya nguvu/ tunapashwa kusaidiwa na wapadri wetu/ kwa kufundishana/ na kuomba kwa Mungu mwenyewe/ atusaidia pamoya na mitume wake: tupate kufuata njia yake ya kweli: njia wazi/ yote tulipewa kwa Mungu/ tulisema: tulipata kwa Mungu na tutatafuta yote kwa Mu- kwa Mungu/ bila kuacha/ tunapashwa kutafu- kutafuta/ yambo yetu bababa na baniama/ yambo yetu baba/ 30. And then we have the church. We have our Fathers to help us in this task of teaching each other. If we do not understand well let us ask them so that they may help us. Let us help each other teach each other. When we get into trouble(?) who is going to protect us? Satan? He will cheat us. He will take us onto another way, the way of Satan. We may be convinced and tell ourselves, "I am on the way of God," while in reality we have left the way of God long ago. We will think that the others are not on the way of God. "Are they on the way of God? They don't know. But we know that we are on the way of God." (This is how we think) while in reality we have left the way of God long ago. Because this is a hard task we must receive help from our missionaries, help to teach each other. And we must ask (help) from God himself that he may help us together with his apostles so that we may be able to follow his way truly: the open road. We all were endowed by God, as we said; we received everything from God and we must seek everything in God. Never giving up, we must search. Greeting
31. aah: tulisema tena: tulipata: sisi wantu tulipata tena: mapendo/ mapendo ya roho na mwi- na mwili/ ile: mm: ndyo mwisho/ ndyo kikubwa sana/ mapendo: ni nani rnwenye kutafuta mapendo? ni nani anapenda mapendo? (Someone else:) muntu yoyote/ 31. Well, furthermore we said that we people also received love, love of the soul and of the body. This is the final part and it is a great matter indeed. Who is seeking love? Who loves love? (someone else:) Everybody.
32. tutasema muntu yote/ anatafuta mape- mapendo/ namna gani? tunaona muntu yote: kwanza anatafuta asema banipe- banipende/ muntu yote/ anatafuta mapendo mu kazi/ bamupende mu kazi/ anatafuta mapendo nyumbani mwake/ anafuta mapendo katika nkundi/ anatufuta mapendo popote: fasi yote/ anatafuta asema banipe- banipende/ ni kama banamupenda: anafurahiwa/ kumupenda hapana: hawezi kufurahiwa: anasikitika sana sana sana/ analia/ ataacha hata ile kazi: anaomba licenciement/ bibi atahama ile bukweli/ atatoka/ sema bwana huyu kunipenda hapa- hapana/ hata bwana atafukuza bibi: asema: huyu bibi kunipenda hapa- hapana/ hata baba wa Jamaa: na mama wa Jamaa: atatoka mu nkundi: atasema benzetu kunipenda hapa- hapana/ namna yoyote/ kumbe bote tunatafuta mape- mapendo/ bote tunatafuta kabisa kabisa kabisa/ ni kama vile tulitafuta: eh: tunapenda uzima: tunapenda uzazi: na mapendo tunapenda sa- sana/ 32. Yes, everybody seeks love. How? We see that everybody has this desire: they should love me. Everybody seeks love at the place where he works. He wishes that they love him at work. He seeks love in his home. He seeks love in his group. He seeks love everywhere. His desire is: they should love me. And if they love him, then he will full of joy. If they do not love him, he cannot be full of joy and he is very sad indeed. He cries. He is even going go leave his work and he asks to be fired. The wife will move out of this marriage.20 She will leave and she will say, "This husband doesn't love me." The husband will chase her away, and he will say, "This wife doesn't love me." And even a baba of the Jamaa or a mama of the Jamaa will leave the group and will say, "My friends do not love me." All this is an example for the fact that we all seek love. We all seek it very much. And if we seek it in this way, if we love life-force, if we love fecundity, then we love love truly.
33. lakini ni kikumbo sana/ kwa kupata mapendo/ ndyo maana: tunajikumbusha: tunafundishana umuntu wetu: sababu: tupate mapendo/ kwa sababu mapendo ni Mungu mwenye- mwenyewe/ kama tuna na mapendo: ndyo kusema: twiko na Mungu mwenye- mwenyewe/ nani anamuonaka Mungu? tuliisha kumuona? hapana/ hana na mwili: hatuwezi kumuona/ tutamuonea wapi? kama tuna mapendo: kama tunazaliwa na mapendo: ya roho ya umoja: kweli kweli tunaweza kusikia sawa tunamuona Mu- Mungu/ twiko na Mungu/ ni kule tunasemaka: hata katika nkundi yetu: ya kama: ah: tunamuonaka Mungu/ na wapagani bengine wanatumia asema bajamaa banasema tunafanyaka (?) miyujizi: tunaona Mu- Mungu/ hapana/ tunamuona Mungu kwa aababu: tulipima mapendo na tuliisikia sasa hivi: rohoni mwetu/ mama kwa baba: baba kwa mama: mama na baba: kwa wandugu wo- wote/ tunaweza kusema tunamuona Mu- Mungu/ iko/ twiko nayo/ tunamuona Mungu/ sababu Mungu ni mapendo: iko paka katika mape- ka mapendo/ 33. But it is very difficult to get love. This is the reason why we make ourselves remember, why we teach each other so that we may receive love. Because love is God himself. If we have love it means that we are with God himself. Who has ever seen God? Have we seen him? No. He does not have a body. We cannot see him. Where will we see him? If we have love, if we are born in love, in the spirit of unity, then we can truly feel like we see God. We are with God. This is why we used to say here in our group that we see God. And some pagans use this, maintaining that the people of the Jamaa say "We are the enlightened ones.21 We see God." No. We see God because we tried love and we experienced it in our soul. Mama through baba, baba through mama, mama and baba through all the other brothers. We can say that we see God. He is here and we are with him. We see God because God is love. He is present in love.
34. kumbe: mapendo ya roho/ ni kama vile vile tulizungumuza habari ya uzima/ ni namna moya/ na mapendo ya mwili/ mapendo ya mwili tunajua sana/ mapendo ya kupenda mwili muzuri/ ya kupenda bibi kijana: muzuri: wa namna hiyi: wa namna hiyi/ bwana wa namna hiyi: muzuri: murefu: mwekunda: wa mali mingi: hivi na hivi/ mais tunatazama mwili/ mais hatuwezi/ tulisema ku mbele ya kama: hatuwezi kuchugua/ kwa sababu mawazo yetu iko ndani ya mwili wetu/ mwili wetu ni kama nyumba ya mawa- ya mawazo/ mawazo yetu iko paka namna mo- moja/ tunaweza kupenda mwili bila kuchugua/ kwa sababu kama tunachagua: siku moja tutachukia mwili kama inageuka mwili: kama inakuwa maladi: ao namna hivi: tutasema: oh: inakuwa muba- mubaya/ inakuwa bibi muzee: anageuka anakuwa mugonjwa...iko anakonda hivi na hivi/ tutachukia/ sisi hatuwezi kuchagua/ kwa sababu tunajua kikubwa: ni mawazo tulipata kwa Mungu: twiko namna mo- moja/ kwa sababu kama tunachagua: na siku moya tutachukia/ ile ni namna ya kutafuta mapendo ya mwili/ 34. So (we come to) love of the soul. This is the same as we talked about in connection with life-force. It is the same thing. And then love of the body. We know all about love of the body, love of the beautiful body. To love the wife when she is young, when she is like this or like that. (To love) the husband when he is this, beautiful, tall, red22, wealthy, and so on. But we are fascinated by the body and that should not be. We said earlier that we must not make distinctions because our thoughts are inside our bodies. Our body is like a house for thoughts and our thoughts are one. We can love the body without making distinctions. Because if we make distinctions then we will hate the body someday when it becomes sick or something of that kind. Then we will say "Oh, it turned ugly." The wife has grown old, she has changed and got sick...she got thin, this and that. We will hate (her). We must no make distinctions because we have the great knowledge, knowledge of the thoughts we received from God. We are the same. For if we make distinctions then someday we will hate. This is the way to seek love of the body.
35. tunayua muzuri: mapendo ya kweli ni paka tunaanzia ku roho/ ni kama tunapenda roho sana/ vile tulisemaka kusaidiana roho yetu: ndio kusema tunapenda ro- roho/ kama tunasaidiana kwa njia ya Mungu: tunapenda roho sana/ ni kama tunapenda roho: hatuwezi kuchukia mwili hapana/ muntu mwenye kupenda roho: ya ule bibi: kwa sababu ni mawazo: kama ni ya huyu bwana: atachukia mwili? hapana/ hawezi kutazamamo huyu mwili ...ataona mwili ni bule/ sababu mwili ni udongo/ ni vumbi: itageuka paka vu- vumbi/ hawezi kukosa mapendo hapana/ kwa sababu anayua mapendo ya roho/ anayua: ni kintu gani/ ni lazima napashwa kupenda roho/ mwenye kupenda roho ni kusema: ni pamoya anatafuta mapendo ya- ya roho/ mwili tunayua: kutafuta mapendo ya mwili: pa kuangaria sula: ile ni bule: si kazi yetu: sisi: Mungu hakufanye kintu moya kibaya/ Mungu ni mwema/ alifanya yote vizu- vizuri/ kufuata mapenzi yake/ mapenzi yake yafanyike/ kumbe sisi hatuna lazima: ya kumucommander Mungu: eh: kama alitengenesha huyu mwili: kama ule: eyo: kama hivi: hapana/ hapana/ ile hatuwezi kuangaria/ kama tunaangaria ile: ah: tutaingia mu matata: na machukio ya dunia/ kumbe tunasikia ya kama: mawazo yetu tulipewa kwa Mungu ni lazima kuitafuta na kuitimiza: ku roho na ku- na ku mwili/ 35. We know it well, true love is only the one that we let begin in the soul. I we truly love the soul, as we said before, to help each other in our soul means to love the soul. When we help each other on the way to God then we truly love the soul. If we love the soul we cannot hate the body. Someone who loves the soul of this wife because it is thoughts (or the wife who loves the thoughts because they belong) to this husband, will such a person hate the body? No. He must not (only) stare at this body... (if he does) he will see that it is worthless. Because the body is clay, it is dust and will change to dust. He will not fail in love because he knows love of the soul. He knows what it is (about). I must love the soul. The one who loves the soul will be the one who seeks love of the soul. We know, to seek love of the body by looking at a face is meaningless. This is not our task. We (know) God did not make a single bad thing. God is good and he made everting well, following his liking and that his like may be realized. Therefore we must not tell God (saying) "If he had he made this body well or if that one (were beautiful), fine, if this or that, no.23 We must not look a this that way. If we do we will get into the trouble and hatred of this world. Therefore we understand: We must seek the thoughts we received from God and realize them in the soul and the body.
36. sana aana ku roho kwa sababu ni kintu tulisahau miaka mingi/ sisi wote/ tangu ukristiani wetu/ tangu kufunga ndoa kwetu/ tangu ujana mupaka sasa: tulisahau sana sana: kusaidia roho yetu/ tulisahau sana sana ya kama tuna na uzima: uzazi: na mapendo: kwanza ya roho: na ya mwi- na ya mwili/ na tulitumika kazi yetu yote: maisha yetu yote tangu zamani paka kwa mwili tu: kwa mwili tu/ na roho: tunapima mara moya: tunaanguka: tunarudi: tunasula (=zuia)/ na sasa Mungu anatuangazia yee mwenyewe/ kwa njia ya eklesia yake: ya kama wee muntu unapashwa kujua umuntu wa- wako/ wee muntu: nilikutuma mu dunia sababu gani? sababu ya kwenda kupenda/ kumupenda Mungu wako kuliko vintu vyote/ na kupenda njirani wako kama unajipenda mwenye- mwenyewe/ na kwa kupenda: tunapashwa kujua mawazo tulipewa kwa Mungu mwenye- mwenyewe/ 36. Above all in the soul, because this is something we have forgotten long ago, all of us, ever since we became Christians, since we got married, since the days of our youth up to the present, we truly forgot to help our soul. We truly forgot that we have life-force, fecundity, and love, first of the soul and then of the body. And all the work we did throughout our life for such a long time was only for the body. As far as the soul is concerned, we try it once, we fall, we turn back, and we give up. Now God himself has enlightened us through the way of his Church: You are muntu and you must know your umuntu. Why did I send you, muntu, into the world? Because you should go and love, love your God more than anything, love your fellow man like you love yourself. In order to love we must know the thoughts we received from God.
37. na kwa kupata ile mapendo: iko inatanguliwa na kazi mukubwa: ya kusikilizana/ kusaidiana: tutapenda- tutapendana/ kusikilizana kama hivi tunakuya/ unaona: tunasikilizana: sisi wote/ wababa hapa: wamama: na popote: tunapashwa kusikilizana/ sisi wantu wote/ na kusikilizana: kusaidiana/ angaria baba X: na mama na baba hapa: banatusaidi- banatusaidia/ kazi mukubwa sana mangaribi/ na kusaidiana kazi/ hata katika njia: hata tunakutana mwenzetu: na mateso ya hiyi: ya hiyi/ kama tunaweza: kama tuna na nasaidio: tutamusaidi- tutamusaidia/ kutengenesha motokari wake: hata nkinga yake: ao kama twiko na kintu gani: chakula: tutamupa/ kusaidiana: kama tuna . . . tulisikilizana na tunaanza kusaidiana: mapendo itakuwa nguvu? hapana/ aah: tutapata mapendo mingi sana- sana/ ile mapendo tunapata ni kusema: tunapata Mungu wetu kama Mungu ni kati yetu: ni yote/ tutakuwa bazima/ tutakuwa bazima: tutakuwa: tutastahili umwana wa Mungu: tutakuwa hata wa ukumbozi: kama ni Bwana Yezu mwenyewe/ tutasaidia Bwana Yezu kazi yake mukubwa ya ukombo- ya ukombozi/na tutakuwa mapendo/ yambo yetu bababa na bamatna/ yambo yetu baba/ 37. That we receive this love depends on a great task. The task of mutual understanding, of mutual help, and of mutual love. Mutual understanding in the same way we have it here. You see we all understand each other. We wababa here and wamama here and everywhere, we must understand each other, we, all the people. And (to) understand each other we must help each other. Look at baba X (pointing to the host of the evening) and his mama here, they help us. They have a lot of work this evening. And we should help each other at work. Even on the road, if we meet a friend and he has this or that trouble, if it is possible and if we have help, we will help him. Let us help him repair his car or his bike. Whatever we have -- food (for example) -- we will give it to him. If we help each other when we have... if we understand each other and we begin to help each, will love be difficult? (The audience:) No. Indeed, we will receive great love. In this love we receive, we receive our God. It is as if God were in our middle, this is everything. We shall be full of life. We shall be full of life, we shall be worthy of God's childhood and we shall even become saviors just like the Lord Jesus himself. We shall help the Lord Jesus in his great work of salvation. And we will be love. Greeting.

38. ile ni kipande ya mawazo tulipewa: inaita kipande ya umuntu wetu: alakini: tulianza ya kama muntu iko nini/ tunajua muntu na mawazo ya- yake/ ile ni kipande moya/
38. This is the chapter about the thought we received. It is called the chapter about our umuntu. We began with the question "What is man?" We know man and his thoughts. This is one chapter.




Communicative Situation and Genre
Public gatherings of the Jamaa may take place either following a regular, most often weekly, schedule, or on occasions which call for celebration or for response to a situation of crisis (illness, death). Main criterion for determining the public character of a meeting is the presence of the group. In weekly reunions, participation may approach the total of the membership, although it rarely does; on special occasions, frequently only a fraction of the membership may be present, although always with the assumption that the group (nkundi) is represented. The latter was the case when we recorded Text 1. Of the fifteen or twenty people who attended, most were married couples and belonged to the "BCK" group of Lubumbashi.24 Led by the speaker, they were in fact his "children" through initiation (including the Belgian missionary who was present during the recording). I was not able exactly to determine the degree of membership (or rank in initiation); some may have been beginners and at least one of the participants was declared a mere sympathizer, a category which, I assume, would also have been applied to me.
Presence of not fully initiated members and interested outsiders is characteristic of public meetings, both the routine- and the special occasion kind. In the latter case, it may be more pronounced since relatives and friends of a celebrating or mourning family are often invited to participate. Praying and singing of hymns is more prominent at these meetings, and a communal meal will be planned, although it usually follows instruction in the doctrine. The Jamaa does not prohibit beer-drinking with moderation. As a matter of fact, when one of the participants in that evening at Lubumbashi refused beer and took only water, others jokingly called him a Protestant (alluding to the Methodist ban on drinking). Later, it was explained to me that he used to be a heavy drinker who had pledged abstinence as part of his conversion to the Jamaa, but that was regarded as his personal matter and outsiders would be told that he refused beer for reasons of health.
Let us now consider the speaker of our text. Baba Nkondo Sébastien (often called Baba Seba) was, like many of the other participants, an immigrant to Katanga from southern Kasai. The father of seven children, he held at the time of this recording the office of an administrator of the railroad workers' settlement ("Camp" in local parlance, also kompund or componi, from the English "compound," in Katanga Swahili. He shared that function with a colleague who was in charge of bureaucratic matters while he served as the chief arbitrator in all matters of litigation (concerning labor discipline and customary law). He was highly respected and had considerable influence. Originally, he was trained as an elementary schoolteacher in a mission school. For reasons of health, however, he gave up teaching an joined the railway company as a clerk one of the important railway posts to the west of Lubumbashi. There he was introduced to the Jamaa by another prominent leader of the movement in this area. Baba Nkondo lived in the settlement which he administrated and was the leading layman in the Catholic parish that was served by a missionary, a Jesuit priest who visited the church on a regular basis. Since that missionary was a supporter and himself a member of the movement, the Jamaa had complete control of the parish and beyond that considerable influence on the life of settlement. All this combined to give Baba Nkondo a position of unquestioned authority, which he exercised with obvious pleasure but also with discretion and great personal warmth. His instructions in Jamaa doctrine very clearly exhibited the feature of authoritative delivery which is one of the characteristics of the mafundisho genre of Jamaa speech events and texts (Fabian 1974, reprinted in 1991: chapter 3).
In many cases, a speaker's authoritative attitude or consciousness may have to be inferred from non-linguistic indicators and signals that are not recordable and do not show up in transcription. In Text 1, however, we can point to several instances in which the speaker resorts to an outright didactic stance when he elicits response to specific questions from his audience (see paragraph 5, for instance). This, incidentally, was even more pronounced in instructions he delivered to his group in the settlement. I attended several of those as an observer and was impressed by his classroom approach, something which he obviously brought to Jamaa teaching from his earlier training and which was not at all typical of other prominent leaders in the area.25 With more emphasis than others, he would insist on the inner connections between teaching and fecundity, and between fecundity and spiritual filiation, i.e., initiation. In paragraph 24, we he describes the crucial steps in which Jamaa doctrinal discourse is seen to realize the process and relationships of initiation. At the beginning of that paragraph, fecundity of the soul as the goal specific to the Jamaa is contrasted to fecundity of the body, which everyone else seeks. Concretely, search for corporal fecundity is expressed as concern for offspring. Someone may have five, six, or even ten children, the speaker tells us, but then the family is complete. Spiritual fecundity knows no limits. The essence of that argument is somewhat obscured in translation; the original reveals an important switch from a general, somewhat abstract idea of fecundity (uzazi) to the idea of a kin group (kizazi) constituted by the realization of fecundity. Morphologically, both terms are based on the same stem (-zazi), and the mere change of prefixes from u- to ki- facilitates an important conceptual switch. In our attempt to work out the structural principles along which the Jamaa is organized as an social entity, we found that constant translation of a general value (uzazi) into specific relationships of filiation (kizazi) was a key to understanding (Fabian 1971:88-92).
A second conceptual transformation is involved when the speaker defines filiation qua activity as teaching. To teach is to exercise fecundity; to be taught is to be born. To give birth and to be born is the essence of initiation. Hence, if we carry on the argument to its logical conclusion, it is the pronounced distinction between authoritative speakers and audience, combined with emphasis on instruction rather than on the genres of testimony or encounter that makes public mafundisho such an important enactment of Jamaa teaching. In mafundisho Jamaa realizes itself as a social entity.

Content and Style
Articulation of the values and relationships expressed by uzazi/kizazi does not exhaust the communicative process which a speech event produces a given text of the genre mafundisho. To give birth and to be born through teaching are, by virtue of the notion of birth, linked to initiation, to the gradual formation of experience guided by mawazo. To expound that concept, to explore its dimensions, and to fill it with concrete content is the function of instruction as narrative. So our interpretation now moves from considering teaching as an event to what we may call the enactment of communicative competence. Any attempt to recognize and understand such competence must be based on the role that specific content plays in mediating between the total system of mawazo and concrete communication of mawazo. This calls first of all for an identification of the teaching content of Text 1 in terms of topics that make up the main divisions of Jamaa doctrine (Fabian 1971: chapter 3). Comparison shows that our text does not concentrate on one or the other of the recognized subdivisions. Under the general heading of umuntu, it brings together a number of topics in such a way that it covers almost the entire scope of teaching matter for the first degree of initiation. Schematically, this may be presented as follows:


Topics Represented in Text 1
Discovery 1-3
three names 4-5, 7
Jamaa, beginning 13
three rules 37
three thoughts, dual nature, destination of man 6, 7, 16-36
Church, apostles 14, 27, 30, 37


Figure 1: Divisions of content in Text 1


Thus, Text 1 can clearly be located within the scope of teaching content. At the same time, it displays a number of significant deviations from that theoretical catalog. The bulk of the instruction is devoted to an exposition of the three thoughts (6, 7, 16-36). "Discovery" is treated only briefly, by way of introduction, and with respect to "origins" (Trinity, Jamaa), the speaker limits himself to bare formulae of standardized doctrine. Somewhat more extended are references to Jesus Christ, to the apostles and the church, topics we located under the common heading of "realization." Conspicuous for their absence are references to such crucial chapters such as the myth of thought-man, the creation of the angels, of Adam and Eve, and to the chapter on the Virgin Mary and the Holy Family. Furthermore, it appears that some of the topics are not introduced in the order in which they appear in our theoretical catalog (for instance, paragraphs 13, 37, 14, 27,30). All this goes to show that, in a given concrete instance, the speaker may be bound by outer limits defining what is teaching matter in public mafundisho, but not by those subdivisions and categories that are otherwise codified in written outlines that are the main source for establishing a "catalog." In the text under consideration, the general topic of umuntu, properly located in the "discovery" section, serves to organize a number of topics which the speaker is free to select and to arrange according to his own choice. This element of choice is one of the indicators for emerging patterns of a style.
Deviation from a generalized scheme and evidence for personal choice may in fact serve as analytical indices of stylistic variation. But variation as such is not what we are trying to demonstrate with our interpretation of texts. Variation is but a formal indicator of a process which we tried to identify in its concrete product and we will show presently that neither deviation nor choice is adequate to describe the results of the final phase in the production of a text. Neither can account for the specific shape it receives by being recited by a concrete speaker in a concrete situation. We shall therefore now consider Text 1 in the light of a specific kind of rhetoric appeal made visible in such a way that the final product can be related to the speaker's personal experience with, and his position in, the Jamaa.
Anticipating the results of that inquiry, we propose that Text 1 shows the major characteristics of a logical-moral style of presentation. To be sure, other influences are visible, but these will have to be dealt with later on. In this style, the succession of chapters or subdivisions will be based strictly on manifest taxonomies of doctrinal key-terms (see Fabian 1975, reprinted in 1991:chapter 2). As the following schema shows (see Figure 2), Text 1 is in its main parts clearly organized along the patterns of taxonomic divisions of umuntu. Brief versions or elements of other taxonomies are also recognizable but do not significantly shape the scope of this instruction. Here the taxonomy of umuntu; the numbers point to paragraphs in Text 1:


1-3, 11, 12, 14, 19, 38
three great thoughts
6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15
16, 17


Figure 2: Taxonomic distinctions and narrative
structures in Text 1


In actual presentation, the sequence has certain flaws if measured against the ideal schema. There is a certain amount of back-and-forth tracking; occasionally, a step may be skipped; and the last part (about mapendo) is treated rather hurriedly; the speaker obviously was eager to come to an end. Nevertheless, there cannot be any doubt that this instruction about umuntu is consciously organized around a classification of mawazo (see also the concluding formula in paragraph 38), and that major subdivisions are introduced as nodal points in a taxonomy. It is also apparent that the speaker takes great care to develop his instructions following the logical relationships we find in that taxonomy. For the most part, he does this by implication, simply proceeding from one topic to the next. Occasionally, however, he explicitly points to the fact that he is about to introduce or complete a portion of his talk (e.g., paragraph 4, where a logical transition between two different approaches to umuntu is marked; see also paragraphs 15, 22, 38). The same regard for logical completeness and elegance is visible in the passages where he briefly introduces two other conceptual triads of Jamaa doctrine, the three names (paragraphs 5 and 7), and what we called the three rules (paragraph 37).
Conspicuous and impressive as they may be, these logical arrangements of key doctrinal terms only provide the scaffold on which baba Nkondo builds his instruction. They are neither the only recognizable structures of his narrative, nor does the final product consist just of propositions stating or elaborating terms of doctrine. Rhetoric is directed towards praxis, it derives its appeal from the ways in which the speaker can show to his audience what mawazo ought to be realized in daily life. In texts following the logical-moral scheme, the overall impression is that of a strong emphasis on the normative application of doctrinal tenets to action. Lexically, this is signalled by the prominence of norm concepts implying moral obligation, a moral urge or responsibility. The one most frequently used in Text 1 is tunapashwa, we are obliged to, and its derivatives (see paragraphs 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36). Others are ni lazima, it behooves, it is necessary (see paragraphs 13, 16, 17, 35), or kufaa, to be good, to be appropriate (paragraph 19). Added to this should be negative forms, expressing moral strictures, such as hatuwezi, we cannot, it is not morally acceptable for us to.
Concern with norms and applications not only is expressed lexically, it also shows in the structure of the text in the sense that it is possible to identify its segments with respect to their position in a matrix constituted by two axes. This is illustrated in the following figure:
















Figure 3: Narrative structures of Text 1


The divisions we marked on the horizontal axis describe the narrative sequence in which the speaker develops the topic of umuntu. He begins with a statement concerning the "name" muntu (a kind of nominal definition), and then proceeds to give the Jamaa view of the derivation of mawazo, the distinguishing element of both divine and human nature (a kind of genetic definition). Then follows the exposition of the theme in terms of the three great thoughts, and their taxonomic subdivisions. The last section briefly introduces the three rules, and ends with a formula restating the main theme.
Along the vertical axis we indicated two or possibly three, levels of discourse, "Classification" is the predominant characteristic of those segments in which the speaker states normative concepts and their logical relationships, either through definition or through taxonomic arrangements.
"Application" describes segments in which these norms or rules are applied to action as concrete guidelines or through examples and counter-examples. Occasionally the statement of a concept and the call to apply it may occur simultaneously within the same segment. This explains why some paragraphs had to be listed both under "classification" and "application." It should be kept in mind that the present segmentation of the text is a compromise of various different considerations. All "applications" are placed in the immediate social context of the Jamaa movement.
There remains, nevertheless, a significant portion of the text in which emphasis is shifted from individual motivation to integration into institutional patterns, either of the Jamaa as a movement or, more prominently, into the Catholic mission church. Tentatively, we labelled this level "organization." One of the reasons why this remains tentative is that, with the exception of paragraph 14, concern with "organization" seems to be developed only with regard to the second of the great thoughts, fecundity. This affects the economy and elegance of the paradigm, since this last level appears to be limited to only one section in the narrative sequence. On the other this confirms earlier findings concerning the social organization of the Jamaa which is perceived as a transformation of uzazi into kizazi (see commentary on paragraph 24 in the preceding section). Important is also the way the speaker expresses the link between mawazo and its concrete individual and social realizations. Individual action, as well as institutionalized action, are depicted as an implementation of rules and principles. This is, as we argued before, the essence of the logical-moral style and its rhetoric appeal. There can be no doubt that Text 1 is thoroughly permeated by these concerns, lexically as well as in its narrative structure.
Our schematic representation of Text 1 in Figure 2 bears a certain obvious similarity to Lévi-Strauss,' orchestration of myth (see 1967:209f). It shares with it a tendency to separate synchronic (or paradigmatic) from diachronic (or syntagmatic) relationships between segments of a narrative. But we have no interest in showing that the synchronic axis is theoretically more important and more revealing of presumed universal structures. Nor do we think that it is useful to contrast the two axes with respect to time. In both dimensions, narrative is crucially dependent on, and expressive of, time. This may be more obvious along the syntagmatic axis, i.e., the one that follows narrative sequence. It is hardly less important in the constitution of paradigmatic relationships. The realization of projects from "classification" through "application" and "organization" (see the rows of Figure 2) clearly expresses conceptualizations of time which defy a cover-all designation as "synchronic." For us, schematic presentations of this kind are useful devices for quick orientation; their theoretical contribution to an understanding of Jamaa discourse is limited.
But back to the text. Our account of stylistic features in Text 1 would be incomplete if we were to overlook a more than incidental occurrence of elements we attributed to the existential-theological scheme that was identified in another context. Most conspicuous is the frequency with which the speaker invokes the notion of kutafuta, to search. More often than not, the term is embedded in phrases formulating moral appeals (e.g. paragraphs 12, 13, 16, 19, 22, 24, 26, 30) and can therefore be regarded as subordinate to the dominant pattern of logical-moral argumentation. But there are at least two contexts in which kutafuta is given independent significance. One of them is contained in the initial section (paragraphs 2 and 3), where kutafuta serves as a characteristic distinguishing divine form human nature. Both God and man are mawazo; but man is mawazo ya kutafuta, literally thought of searching. The crucial point is that this attribute is not so much conceived as a pragmatic norm; it is not defined with respect to something that must be found, but it is an existential determinant of human nature, irrespective of concrete goals or goods to be attained. In the monograph, we observed that this notion is typical of Jamaa teaching in the Lubumbashi area (Fabian 1971:96). A consensus of several important informants pointed to the missionary Jamaa leader in that city as the source. He himself admitted that emphasis on searching had been a concern of his in "training" local leaders. It was in line with his efforts to direct the movement away from the dogmatism and ritualism thought to be characteristic of groups in the Kolwezi area.
As we shall see later on, the term kutafuta may, in a different sense, be employed within a mythical-historical frame. In Lubumbashi, however, leaders would insist on its existential connotation: man is a searcher who never can acquiesce in his findings; he is someone who always lives facing the paradox that he must seek but not find. In Text 1, as in several other documents, this existential-ontological notion of kutafuta is linked to what could be called a phenomenology of seeking. This, in fact, was one of the starting points used by the founder in his "discovery" of the three great thoughts. He used to start his instructions with the question, muntu anatafuta nini, what is man looking for, what is man's desire? The three standard answers -- life, fecundity, and love -- are thus derived from an examination of concrete needs and hopes. Traces of this approach are found in our text at the end of paragraph 31, in 32, and 35. Other indicators of existential-theological concerns we can see in the reference to imani, faith (paragraph 17), and in a short passage (paragraph 21) where the speaker argues for the universal extension of a negative attribute of man: to be a sinner. The latter is definitely unusual for Jamaa teaching as I was able to observe it.
In a comparative historical perspective, Jamaa thought exhibits many, if not most, characteristics of gnostic thought (Fabian 1969). Accordingly, notions expressing loss of knowledge or forgetting, may be used as universal negative concepts. The present text contains several formulations of gnostic character (e.g., the problem of sameness/likeness between God and man based on thought, paragraphs 4, 6).
We should briefly note that Text I also contains elements we can ascribe to a mythical-historical style, notably in those passages in which the speaker develops the notion of njia, the way (e.g., paragraph 30) and kazi, work, task (e.g., paragraph 32). These, however, are clearly subordinate to the major pattern of argumentation, and can only lead us to reaffirm that our attempts to distinguish tendencies of stylistic variation are meant to identify historical contexts of a speaker's experience.
Finally, we should comment on the importance of what we can call rhetoric devices in Text 1. The overall impression is that the speaker makes extensive use of antiphonal contacts, i.e. calling for response from his audience by inserting the Jamaa greeting and by inviting completion of sentences and/or words. As we already observed, he occasionally takes an outright didactic stance when he poses doctrinal questions to his audience. This, too, may be regarded as a rhetoric device. On the other hand, there are only traces of rhetorical elements which the Jamaa borrows from popular oral art. At one point Baba Nkondo hints at what may be a Jamaa maxim or proverb (paragraph 16). In another place he dramatizes an account of the destitute Christian with a vivid imaginary dialogue (paragraphs 18 and 19). Several times he declares that he is giving a mufano, an example (e.g., paragraph 14, paragraph 20). But in these instances as well as in others that are not explicitly marked as mifano, the illustration of doctrine tends to be axiomatic rather than anecdotal or metaphoric. Some passages contain more concrete images that others (e.g., paragraphs 28, 32), but on the whole these mifano are applications rather than images, a tendency that is perhaps inherent in the logical-moral style.

Socio-Cultural Context
We took great care to depict the communicative situation and the various formal features which allow us to link Text 1 to the production of mawazo, Jamaa discourse. In this commentary we concentrate on everything that allows us to identify the outward shape and the inner constitution of texts. In this sense, we aim at text-immanent interpretations. But our concern with the reality of the text should not give the impression that we intend to reduce the social reality of the Jamaa to spoken or written objectivations of mawazo. We should not project a picture of the movement according to which its followers would appear completely and unequivocally encapsulated in their own doctrinal world. In every instance, Jamaa teaching not only makes statements of a world, that is, of its own microcosm, but also speaks about a world. Such intentionality is necessarily part of any ongoing process of communication. Should content, the what? of statements, be completely transformed into procedures and structures, the how?, then one would have to conclude that the production of thought and, with it, articulative communication have ceased. Text 1 offers an opportunity to show how Jamaa teaching extends itself beyond the articulation of its own concepts and tenets into the social-cultural context in which most members live their everyday life.
The cell of all concrete realizations of Jamaa is the married couple. Their union is to be based on perfect equality. This is an ideal and Jamaa people know from their everyday experience that their beliefs are challenged by the values of the wider society. In the light of this, statements such as the one at the beginning of paragraph 10 have a real, practical edge. To assert the equality of all people may be gratuitous; to call for equality between the rich and the poor is largely futile, given the objective class structure of the society; Jamaa members are poor and likely to remain so. But to ask for equality of the sexes is a demand which has at least a chance to be fulfilled. One of the concrete issues, by the way, one which the Jamaa regard as a test of its teachings, is alluded to in paragraph 28: "This is a bad wife, because she does not give birth." In traditional as well as in urban societies, a woman's (presumed) sterility inevitably results at first in attempts to secure magic or ritual redress and finally in the breakup of the marriage. I have known and have heard of numerous couples who, supported by the communal approval of the Jamaa, challenged this accepted cause for divorce and refused to yield to the pressures of their kin group to separate. To exercise spiritual fecundity in the ritual life of the movement as it is described in paragraph 26 was deemed ample recompense for physical sterility.
Text 1 also provides vivid images for the concrete situation in which most recruits to the movement find themselves. In paragraphs 16, 18, and 19, the speaker depicts the estranged mission Christian who has come to regard his religion as the white man's contraption, the price one has to pay to get into school, and therefore basically a matter for children. It is through a second conversion that the typical candidate for the Jamaa is made to realize that Christianity is a matter for mature, responsible people in search of their humanity and that Mungu, the God of the missionaries, is their own God, a God who cannot be "returned" after one is through with mission schools (see paragraph 19). In conversations, Baba Nkondo identified this as his personal conversion experience: Mungu ni Mungu wangu, God is my God. Such reconversion to Christianity raises a problem for the people of the Jamaa. No longer protected by colonial prejudice, they must take a position vis-a-vis the mission church which, in the middle sixties when these texts were recorded was still represented largely by a European clergy. In paragraphs 14 and 26 and 27, we find typical Jamaa solutions to that problem. The church hierarchy is subsumed under the existential definition of man the "searcher"; it is depicted as searching for spiritual kizazi and in need of help from Christian laymen to accomplish the missionary task. But the fact is that many missionaries think of themselves not as searchers, but as possessors of truth; they have no interest in spiritual kinship but seek to erect buildings, educational systems, and bureaucratic structures; and certainly are most wary of unsolicited help from their African converts.
All this gives to these passages which we located on the organizational level of discourse (see Figure 16) a slightly polemic edge. In fact, they may have been stated for the benefit of the two Europeans present at the meeting. At the same time, they reveal the utopian character of a great deal of Jamaa teaching. Precisely at the point where the reconverted Christian sought to extend his predicament to social practice, where he saw a chance to overcome one of the main barriers of the colonial situation, his definitions and projects were bent back onto themselves -- onto the pursuit of life, fecundity, and love within the movement. The speaker is aware of these frustrations as well as of their effect on the Jamaa. In paragraph 33 he rejects the image the movement has among may outsiders as being an exclusive sectarian group of people who think of themselves as "the enlightened ones." The context of this observation — it appears in a section dealing with the great thought of love — makes it likely that the speaker also intended an allusion to heterodox branches of the movement. Most of these owe their existence to an exclusive, secret, and radical pursuit of "love," often in the form of ritualized sexual promiscuity.
Finally, we should point to paragraph 32, which documents Jamaa views of the pursuit of love in the industrial workers's situation. He is depicted as someone who seeks above all love and understanding and it is most significant that in this respect his contractual relationships with fellow workers and employers are compared to the bond that keep his marriage together. This equation is open to different, perhaps contradictory, interpretations. Does the Jamaa simply project its "cellular" views of human relationships focused on husband and wife onto all social relations? And is this to be taken as a confirmation of well-known colonial cliches of Africans seeking, like children, only personal recognition and gratification at work? Or is it the other way round? Does the Jamaa incorporate into its definition of marriage a new type of personal relation based on experiences in the urban industrial world? Turning back to paragraph 20 we find ample confirmation for the latter. There, the world of labor and its concomitants such as modern medicine are declared "good" means of pursuing life for the body and serve to delineate proper Jamaa behavior against pagan dependency on diviners and other "dark" practices.26


1 Throughout these texts we shall use "greeting" as a short translation gloss for the Jamaa formula yambo yetu (bababa na bamama). According to the Oxford Standard Dictionary (148 f.), jambo, lit., matter, affair, is a worn-down form of hujambo? "Nothing the matter? (response: sijambo). In Shaba Swahili only the shorter form seems to be in use. When the greeting is addressed to a multitude the pronoun yenu (second person plural) may be added. It is in conscious contrast to the latter form that the Jamaa insists on yambo yetu (first person plural) as a distinctive sign of membership in the movement.
2 The cogency of the argument is somewhat lost in translation. The speaker utilizes the common root -ntu to derive from the form ba-ntu, people, humans, the necessity of understanding u-mu-ntu, the essence of being human.
3 One of the rare instances in which Jamaa teaching employs the term nguvu (see also paragraphs 20 and 21 of Text I) for "power, force." More often the notion of power, as, e.g., in " the power of God," will be rendered by uwezo. In any case, nguvu has no systematic place in Jamaa terminology and it is in no sense a key term of Jamaa thought. As I have argued elsewhere (1970:20-23), this has to be recognized in any interpretation and critique of Tempels' earlier formulations. Especially in his Bantu Philosophy, the concept of force vitale appeared to figure as a central idea. In Jamaa teaching, the notion of vital force is rendered by uzima, one, and only one, of the "three great thoughts." There may have been doubts about the intention of Bantu Philosophy, but Jamaa doctrine offers no basis for accusations that Tempels ideologized Bantu thought as Kraftphilosophie.
4 Taxonomic differentiation of mawazo is in the present text first introduced in the form of the three names, later the exposition concentrates on the three thoughts. Also, the present formula lists "Holy Spirit, love" as the third link instead of the somewhat esoteric but logical ubwana/ubibi, being husband/wife. This occurs frequently, especially when the speaker does not intend to give an exegesis of the formula.
5 Notice that in this context the three thoughts are stated, not as the essence of umuntu, but as a measure of likeness between God and man. The first aspect will be developed later (paragraphs 15 ff).
6 The speaker uses the French non, in this case apparently in order to emphasize negation. Such selective use of French words and phrases is relatively rare in the Kolwezi area while some speakers in Lubumbashi and Kinshasa would tend consistently to employ a limited number of terms, such as mais (but) instead of alafu (see also this speaker in paragraph 34). Of course, French expressions regularly occur in contexts of technical and administrative language (see below, paragraph 32).
7 Our translation falls short of the subtlety with which the speaker chooses his attributes. We render muntu wa bule as "useless person." The phrase is used currently as an expression of contempt and disregard, especially for people of lower status. The rejection implied in the present context is not based on the addressee's lower socio-economic status (it is used of the white man). Abuse, rather than contempt, is what the speaker seems to intend. An interesting gloss is provided by the Kiluba term kidima, idiot, imbecile, lourdaud, homme stupide, insense, as applied to Christians who no longer follow traditional custom (see Van Avermaet and Mbuya 1954:116).
8 The passage invites a comment on color classification in Jamaa teaching (see also above, paragraph 8). As such, color is not treated explicitly in the doctrine. It is my impression that many speakers simply surrender to the conceptual force of the classical Bantu triad: black, white, red. Going on evidence presented in our text, two reasons can be adduced for this interpretation. First, the speaker betrays his uncertainty about the "red man" in the parenthetic remark "wherever he lives." If questioned, informants would vary in their responses. Some pointed to the "redskins," i.e., The American Indians mentioned in elementary school texts. Others suggested that the red man "lives in Asia" and that "Jesus Christ belonged to the red race." The latter is a highly significant point, since it implies that the founder of Christianity is placed outside of, or elevated above, the black-white opposition characteristic of the racial and social situation in Katanga. I am not aware of any category of persons living there being classified as red, although several Hindu families occupied rather prominent positions as tradesmen and Union Minière contractors in the Kolwezi area. Secondly, the choice of attributes in our present instance shows significant lexical deviation from what would be the classical formula. "White" is not rendered as mweupe, a neutral color term, but as muzungu, the current expression for white man with its racial, social, and cultural connotations.
9 We translate the attribute muzima as "total." The concept is closely related to uzima, life-force, one of the three great thoughts. It has a wide range of connotations, from physical "wholeness" to general health and well-being. In expressions such as dunia muzima, the entire world, it may connote abstract totality.
10 At his point, mawazo rather than roho is used to signify the spiritual aspect of human constitution. We take this to confirm our interpretation that mwili-mawazo is used when man's essential nature is referred to (such as in the present instance in which the absence of mawazo means death). The pair mwili-roho is only employed in classifying aspects of the realization of mawazo.
11 The preceding discussion is an instance of explicit reflection on a complex and changing semantic field. Here the speaker opts for an exclusive definition of muntu: a being which is complete when body and soul are united. Little emphasis is put on the aspect of "totality," i.e., that which makes a being a personal being, which seems to have been the traditional connotation of muntu.
12 In the original, the speaker uses a play on words when he argues that it is a necessity, lazima, to search for life-force, uzima. The link is one of phonological similarity rather than etymological relation. Lazima is not of Bantu origin.
13 Jamaa must be used here in its general meaning of "family" (i.e. not the name for the movement) because it to recommend consulting a diviner would contradict Jamaa doctrine.
14 Literally it says: "Me, this is not here on earth, I know." The whole paragraph represents a change of register and the translation is unable to convey the sense of mocking and irony the speaker projects through intonation and choice of expressions.
15 The terms muganga and mufumu which we translate as "doctor" and "sorcerer" are examples for the complexities of semantic change that may occur between autochthonous and Shaba Swahili usage. In our text, the first one refers to the European-style medical doctor, the second to the traditional practitioner. Muganga is approved by the speaker, while mufumu is rejected as a pagan concept. Other speakers, however, may use the same terms to express different connotations, often those of one of the native languages. In Kiluba, for instance, nganga is the initiated and official preparer of bwanga, magic medicines (see Van Avermaet and Mbuya 1954:24, 26), while mfumu (corresponding to mfumo in East Coast Swahili) is a title given to notables, chiefs, and their counsellors (ibid.:168).
16 Baba Nkondo uses two terms in Tshiluba to evoke practices of divination. Mikiya, I am told, refers to a moral debt (incurred by an infraction); mishinga to corresponding penalties.
17 In this paragraph two terms are used to refer to missionary sisters: the French form of address preceded by a personal class prefix: ba-ma Soeur (this is the plural form; in the singular the prefix is dropped), and bikira, plural ma-bikira, literally virgin(s). The choice of the plural prefix ma- over ba- may imply a subtle connotation difficult to translate. Ma- is used of persons when the speaker wishes to express distance, lack of relationship to a collectivity: e.g., ma-boy, current plural for houseboy; ma-baba, expression I found for remote, no longer personally known ancestors. Other examples in the present text are ma-rafiki, friends (paragraph 26) and ma-padri, priests (paragraph 26).
18 Our translation of kizazi as "family" should not be taken in any specific sense. It simply is the visible realization of the great thought of uzazi (the prefix ki- indicates that it is in the order of "things"). But the speaker also has in his mind kizazi as "kinship (group), i.e. the social organization of the Jamaa.
19 This is an elliptic remark which must be understood as a reference to the counter-examples of true fecundity mentioned earlier.
20 The original uses the term bukweli, for which I do not find a comparable meaning in East Coast Swahili. The literal sense is "a state of certainty, authenticity (from -kweli, true). In Katanga it signifies a marriage properly arranged and confirmed by the payment of bridewealth (see Lenselaer 1983:250; perhaps also Kiluba kwela, verb for coitus; Van Avermaet and Mbuya 1954:298).
21 I take miyujizi to be a form of mjuzi, from kujua, to know. Possibly it is a plural of ujuzi, possession of knowledge (Oxford Standard Dictionary, p. 159).
22 In this context, mwekunda, red, does not refer to a racial or color category but to a standard of beauty: not too light, not too dark.
23 The choice of the French term, familiar to most listeners from their labor-world, emphasizes the inappropriateness of such an attitude.
24 Most of the members lived in the workers' settlement of the BCK railway company.
25 On the role of elementary school teachers in the Jamaa, see Fabian 1971:74f, 106.
26 A more comprehensive commentary on Jamaa conceptualizations of labor as well as on paragraphs 20 and 32 of Text 1 may be found in Fabian 1973.


Fabian, Johannes. (1969b). An African Gnosis: For a Reconsideration of an Authoritative Definition. History of Religions 9: 42-58.
Fabian, Johannes. (1971). Jamaa: A Charismatic Movement in Katanga. Evanston: Northwestern University press. (234 pp.)
Fabian, Johannes. (1973). Kazi: Conceptualizations of Labor in a Charismatic Movement among Swahili-speaking Workers. Cahiers d`études africaines 13: 293-325.
Fabian, Johannes. (1974). Genres in an emerging tradition: An approach to religious communication. In: A.W. Eister (ed.), Changing perspectives in the scientific study of religion. New York: Wiley Interscience. 249-272.
Fabian, Johannes. (1975). Taxonomy and ideology: On the boundaries of concept classification. In: M. Dale Kinkade, Kenneth L. Hale and Oswald Werner (eds.), Linguistics and anthropology: In honor of C.F. Vögelin. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press. 183-197.
Fabian, Johannes. (1977). Lore and doctrine: Some observations on story-telling in the Jamaa movement. Cahiers d`études africaines 17: 307-329.
Fabian, Johannes. (1991). Time and the Work of Anthropology: Critical Essays 1971-1991. Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Fabian, Johannes. (1994). Jamaa: A Charismatic Movement Revisited. In Thomas D. Blakely, Walter E. A. van Beek and Dennis L. Thomson (eds.), Religion in Africa. Experience and Expression. London: James Currey/ Portsmout, N.H.: Heineman. 257-74.
Lenselaer, Alphonse. (1983). Dictionnaire Swahili-Français. Paris: Karthala.
Lévi-Strauss, Claude. (1967). Structural Anthropology. Garden City, N. J.: Doubleday.
Van Avermaet, E. and B. Mbuya. (1954). Dictionnaire Kiluba-Français. Tervuren: Musée Royal du Congo Belge.


[Text 1: Of man (1)]

[Text 2: Of man (2)]

[Text 3: Of angels ]

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© Johannes Fabian
Deposited at APS: 16 May 2003
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